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Appendix D: LCIA Results

D.1 Impact Assessment Results for IMPACT 2002+ and TRACI Methods

Table D1a shows the whole-life inventory results for each of the lamps assessed in the LCA using the IMPACT 2002+ method for the baseline scenario for 2007: 9% recovery and recycling.  Table D1b shows the IMPACT 2002+ results by life cycle stage for the CFLi lamp.  Refer to Section 5.4 for discussion and interpretation of these results. 

Table D1a  Environmental Impacts for IMPACT 2002+ method – Whole life – (100,000 hours operation for baseline scenario of 9% recycling)

Impact Category Unit 1. Linear fluorescent lamp (LFL) 2. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 3. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 4. High pressure sodium (HPS) 5. Metal Halide (MH) ) 6. Mercury Vapour (MV) )
Carcinogens kg C2H3Cl eq 0.81 0.28 0.70 2.74 7.26 4.45
Non-carcinogens kg C2H3Cl eq 3.16 1.06 2.65 9.62 24.29 15.24
Respiratory inorganics kg PM2.5 eq 0.56 0.18 0.35 2.18 5.76 3.61
Ionizing radiation Bq C-14 eq 791 266 1,122 2,784 6,719 3,982
Ozone layer depletion kg CFC-11 eq 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Respiratory organics kg C2H4 eq 0.20 0.06 0.14 0.85 2.26 1.42
Aquatic ecotoxicity kg TEG water 52,468 16,859 38,222 222,878 591,677 369,422
Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg TEG soil 14,609 4,710 9,319 62,768 165,789 103,518
Terrestrial acid/nutri kg SO2 eq 12.08 3.90 7.43 47.68 126.46 79.22
Land occupation m2org.arable 2.33 0.74 1.34 9.77 26.01 16.26
Aquatic acidification kg SO2 eq 3.43 1.14 2.19 13.18 34.90 21.88
Aquatic eutrophication kg PO4 P-lim 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.07 0.04
Global warming kg CO2 eq 804 255 476 3,266 8,687 5,435
Non-renewable energy MJ primary 12,972 4,117 7,697 53,503 142,374 89,014
Mineral extraction MJ surplus 1.45 0.92 7.89 7.20 8.35 2.78

Table D1b  Environmental Impacts for IMPACT 2002+ method – Whole life – Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLi) 20W: integral ballast (100,000 hours operation)

Impact Category Unit Manufacture Import and distribution Retail and use Waste disposal NZ Recycling Displaced material benefits Total
Carcinogens kg C2H3Cl eq 51% 0% 49% 0% 0% -1% 100%
Non-carcinogens kg C2H3Cl eq 56% 0% 44% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Respiratory inorganics kg PM2.5 eq 19% 0% 81% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Ionizing radiation Bq C-14 eq 75% 0% 25% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Ozone layer depletion kg CFC-11 eq 3% 0% 97% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Respiratory organics kg C2H4 eq 18% 0% 81% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Aquatic ecotoxicity kg TEG water 23% 0% 77% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg TEG soil 11% 0% 88% 1% 0% 0% 100%
Terrestrial acid/nutri kg SO2 eq 15% 0% 85% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Land occupation m2org.arable 3% 0% 97% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Aquatic acidification kg SO2 eq - - - - - - -
Aquatic eutrophication kg PO4 P-lim - - - - - - -
Global warming kg CO2 eq 9% 0% 91% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Non-renewable energy MJ primary 8% 0% 92% 0% 0% 0% 100%
Mineral extraction MJ surplus 99% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 100%

Table D1c shows the whole-life inventory results for each of the lamps assessed in the LCA using the TRACI 2 method for the baseline scenario for 2007: 9% recovery and recycling.  Table D1d shows the TRACI 2 results by life cycle stage for the CFLi lamp.  Refer to Section 5.4 for discussion and interpretation of these results. 

Table D1c  Environmental Impacts for TRACI method – Whole life – (100,000 hours operation for baseline scenario of 9% recycling)

Impact Category Unit 1. Linear fluorescent lamp (LFL) 2. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 3. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 4. High pressure sodium (HPS) 5. Metal Halide (MH) ) 6. Mercury Vapour (MV) )
Global Warming kg CO2 eq 976 310 575 3,989 10,613 6,640
Acidification H+ moles eq 181 60 115 695 1,839 1,153
Carcinogenics benzene eq 0.20 0.07 0.37 0.83 1.80 1.05
Non carcinogenics toluene eq 1,904 626 2,014 7,931 20,609 12,806
Respiratory effects kg PM2.5 eq 0.99 0.33 0.63 3.79 10.03 6.29
Eutrophication kg N eq 0.09 0.03 0.06 0.37 0.97 0.61
Ozone depletion kg CFC-11 eq 0.000139 0.000044 0.000081 0.000592 0.001578 0.000986
Ecotoxicity kg 2,4-D eq 750 246 513 2,809 7,404 4,642
Smog kg NOx eq 1.81 0.58 1.09 7.20 19.11 11.97

Table D1d  Environmental Impacts for TRACI method – Whole life – Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLi) 20W: integral ballast (100,000 hours operation)

Impact Category Unit Manufacture Import and distribution Retail and use Waste disposal NZ Recycling Displaced material benefits Total
Global Warming % 8% 0.0% 92% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100%
Acidification % 21% 0.1% 79% 0.0% 0.0% -0.2% 100%
Carcinogenics % 79% 0.0% 21% 0.0% 0.0% -0.1% 100%
Non carcinogenics % 50% 0.0% 50% 0.1% 0.0% -0.2% 100%
Respiratory effects % 21% 0.1% 79% 0.0% 0.0% -0.2% 100%
Eutrophication % 24% 0.3% 76% 0.0% 0.0% -0.2% 100%
Ozone depletion % 3% 0.0% 97% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100%
Ecotoxicity % 29% 0.0% 71% 0.0% 0.0% -0.1% 100%
Smog % 13% 0.2% 87% 0.0% 0.0% -0.1% 100%

D.2    Impact Assessment Results for Offset Materials

Table D2a  Life Cycle Impact Results for Offset Materials – Whole life – 1kg of each material

  Unit Mercury Flat glass Aluminium Brass Nickel Polyurethane Phosphorus
Abiotic depletion kg Sb eq 0.72 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.07 0.04 0.14
Acidification kg SO2 eq 0.48 0.01 0.06 0.12 1.71 0.02 0.07
Eutrophication kg PO4-3 eq 0.02 0.001 0.01 0.004 0.01 0.003 0.01
Global warming kg CO2 eq 64.72 0.69 12.04 2.65 11.84 4.38 15.12
Ozone layer depletion kg CFC-11 eq 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Human toxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 567.7 0.25 55.4 64.6 44.5 0.71 1.77
Fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 31.88 0.04 5.64 1.88 29.73 0.18 0.51
Marine aquatic ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 134,236 108.2 6,708 3,327 32782.8 166.9 1103.2
Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 2,461 0.002 0.14 0.32 0.25 0.01 0.07
Photochemical oxidation kg C2H4 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.01

D.3    Impact Assessment Results for Packaging and Fittings

Table D3a  Life Cycle Impact Results for Packaging and Fittings for Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLi) 20W: integral ballast (100,000 hours operation) – Whole life

  Unit CFLi fittings CFLi packaging
Abiotic depletion kg Sb eq 0.06 0.00
Acidification kg SO2 eq 0.03 0.00
Eutrophication kg PO4-3 eq 0.005 0.00
Global warming kg CO2 eq 7.97 0.03
Ozone layer depletion kg CFC-11 eq 0.00 0.00
Human toxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 24.71 0.01
Fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 5.17 0.003
Marine aquatic ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 4958.91 2.83
Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 0.07 0.00
Photochemical oxidation kg C2H4 0.005 0.00