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Afforestation: new planting on land not previously planted in plantation forest.
Aggregate: crushed rocks, gravel and sand, which is produced by quarries.
Agrichemical: any substance, whether organic or inorganic, man-made or naturally occurring, modified or in its natural state, that is used to eradicate, modify or control flora or fauna.
Annual exceedance probability (AEP): the chance of a flood of a given size (or larger) occurring in any one year, usually expressed as a percentage. Note: NIWA’s flood discharge model, WRENZ (available at, gives an estimate of the 1% AEP flood (in cubic metres per second) for designated rivers and streams in New Zealand.
Archaeological site: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Historic Places Act 1993.
Armouring: the placement of riprap, composed of large pieces of quarried angular rock material of sufficient mass, or the use of other rigid methods to resist scour in flood flows and/or to contain a stream in defined channels.
Average recurrence level (ARI): the long-term average of the number of years between the occurrence of a flood as big as (or larger than) the specified event. For example, floods with a discharge as great as (or greater than) the 50-year ARI design flood will occur on average once every 50 years. ARI is another way of expressing the likelihood of the occurrence of a flood event.
Battery culverts: a stream crossing structure using multiple culvert or box pipes to handle low flows through the pipes, and designed to allow major flows and debris to overtop the entire structure (also known as a vented ford).
Best practicable option: the best method for preventing or minimising adverse effects on the environment having regard, among other things, to:

(a) the nature of the option and the sensitivity of the receiving environment to adverse effects

(b) the financial implications, and the effects on the environment, of that option when compared with other options

(c) the current state of technical knowledge and the likelihood that the option can be successfully applied.
Blading: use of bulldozer, skidder or excavator with blade to remove logging slash and organic soil layers to create a track.
Catchment: the total area from which a single water body collects surface and subsurface run-off.
Class A waters: has the same meaning as in section 69 and schedule 3 of the Resource Management 1991 (the RMA).
Coastal Marine Area: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Consent authority: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Contaminant: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Controlled activity: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Corduroy: the laying of whole trees or logs close together to provide a stable base for machinery passing to or from a road subgrade. A corduroy is typically used to cross a poorly drained area (swampy ground) with low load-bearing capacity.
Culvert: a round pipe or box structure that conveys a water flow under a road, track or other stream or river crossing.
Cultivation: includes drainage, felling bush, clearing land for cropping, and clearing land for planting.
Cutover: forested land that has been completely harvested.
Debris: the accumulation of remains, including vegetation and soil, from forestry operations.
Discretionary activity: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Drift decks: a stream crossing structure composed of a series of inverted “u” shaped precast concrete elements, bearing a concrete slab that passes low flows through the structure, and designed to allow major flows and debris to overtop the entire structure.
Dwelling: any permanent structure that is occupied or intended to be occupied in whole or in part as a residence, and includes (but is not limited to) travellers’ accommodation.
Earthworks: the disturbance of the land surface by machinery, including blading (including V-blading), boring, contouring, drilling, moving, removing, placing or replacing soil or earth; or by excavating; or by a cutting or filling operation. It excludes tracking and associated soil disturbance due to the movement of wheeled or tracked machines used in or around cut-over areas at time of harvest.
Ecological corridors: a strip of vegetation which is important for connection corridors or habitats for animals and plants.
Edge damage: the damage of indigenous vegetation bordering plantation forestry.
Erosion: the detachment and movement of topsoil by the action of wind and flowing water.
Fill material: earth placed (normally under a strict compaction regime) to raise the land surface.
First schedule consultations: as set out in Schedule 1 (3) of the RMA.
Fish passage: the natural movement of fish between the sea and any river, including upstream or downstream in that river or stream.
Flood hazard areas: zones mapped in regional or district plans that have the potential for damage to property or persons due to flooding.
Ford: a natural shallow area in a water body able to be crossed by light 4WD vehicle or log truck (but not a log skidder extracting logs), or an artificially built-up bed designed to facilitate the crossing of a water body.
Forestry / plantation

a forest (native or exotic) deliberately established for commercial purposes.
Geothermal area: an area containing geysers (naturally occurring geothermal springs that occasionally or frequently erupt); springs vigorously depositing sinter; mud pools or geysers; superheated fumaroles; geothermal wetland, lake, pool or stream; or hydrothermal eruption crater.
Green area: to be defined (see Appendix 1).
Harvesting: the act of plantation forest species being cleared from the land.
Hazards (natural): has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Heading up: additional flow though a culvert under pressure driven by a hydraulic head of water above the culvert inlet.
Historic heritage: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Historic heritage

historic heritage area–

(a) means an area that is protected by a rule because of its historic heritage; and

(b) to avoid doubt, includes an area that is protected by a rule because it is a site of significance to Māori.

vegetation that occurs naturally in New Zealand or that arrived in New Zealand without human assistance.
Infrastructure: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Iwi: a set of people bound together by descent from a common ancestor or ancestors.
Iwi authority: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Karst protection

an area of limestone geology with underground streams and many cavities.
Lake: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Landing: a log production and assembly area within a forest.
Land-use capability

described in Appendix 1.
Local authority: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Log crossings: a stream crossing structure composed of a series of logs, often bound together by wire rope that passes low flows under the structure (also known as a skid bridge).
Maintenance and upgrade of existing earthworks: includes activities to upgrade existing earthworks (roadways and landings), minor reshaping of existing forest roads, clearing of water tables and installation of water controls and road metalling. Upgrade does not include road widening.
Mechanical land

root raking, discing, mounding and spot mounding, contour and downhill ripping, roller crushing and other cultivation of land and associated removal of vegetation. V-blading involving disturbance of subsoil will be considered under earthwork rules. Note: Mechanical land preparation is not included in the definition of earthworks.
Mechanical raking: the process of making a windrow of slash. It generally involves a rake on an excavator boom, or a root rake on a bulldozer but not lowered into the subsoil.
Mounding: a term to encompass a variety of site preparation treatments involving mechanical disturbance of soil or sub soil.
Natural character: those qualities and values of wetlands, lakes and rivers and their margins which derive from the presence of natural features and natural processes. Although not excluding structures and human activities, areas of natural character derive their predominant influence, character or identity from the presence of natural values and processes.
New Zealand Land Resources Inventory (NZLRI): a spatial database containing land information (described in Appendix 1).

has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Orange area: to be defined (see Appendix 1).
Outstanding natural features and landscapes: features that are considered as being of national or regional significance, including land forms, geological features, natural character and view shafts.
Perennial river or

a stream that maintains water in its channel throughout the year, or maintains a series of discrete pools that provide habitats for the continuation of the aquatic ecosystem.
Permitted activity: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Production thinning: thinning tree stems for sale.
Pruning: removal of branches from the lower section (up to 8 m) of a tree to produce high-quality clear-wood logs.
Public access: unobstructed admission to space that is available for public use.
Quarry: areas where hard rock or cemented gravel is extracted for processing and storage, which includes areas where associated activities, such as vehicle movement, transfer of rock for processing, stockpiling of aggregate and loading of products to transport trucks, occur.
Red area: to be defined (see Appendix 1).
Regional council: a regional council named in Part 1 of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act.
Rehabilitation: restoration to as near to pre-disturbance conditions as possible. This may entail such measures as revegetation for erosion control, enhancement planting, modification and armouring of water bodies.
Replanting: planting of vegetation over land where forest harvesting has previously occurred.
Restoration: the active intervention and management of degraded biotic communities, land forms and landscapes in order to restore biological character, ecological and physical processes, and their cultural and visual qualities.
Restricted discretionary activity: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Riparian zone: the margin and the bank of a water body; ie, the area where direct interaction occurs between land and water systems, which is important for the management of water quality and ecological resources.
Ripping: disturbing the subsoil to a depth of 30 to 90 cm with a single or double tine or (winged) ripper mounted on an agricultural tractor or bulldozer in order to break up highly compacted soil or a subsurface soil pan prior to planting, to improve drainage and tree-root penetration.
River: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
River crossings: temporary or permanent culverts, battery culverts (also known as vented fords or dry fords overtopped during floods) and bridges.
Road: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Roading: earthworks of 3 m or more in width carried out in order to form, construct or reconstruct a road or formed track, but excluding normal maintenance operations (grading, re-metalling, water table clean-outs).
Roller crushing: a large roller weighing several tonnes released down a slope from a ridge or track, crushing and breaking up vegetation in its path. On flatter terrain rollers can be towed by a bulldozer or tractor.
Rural zone: land that a relevant operative or proposed district or regional plan classifies as primarily for rural activities.
Sediment: solid material, both mineral and organic, that is in suspension, is being transported, or has been moved from site of origin by air, water, gravity or ice and has come to rest on the earth’s surface, either above or below water.
Sediment control measures: measures designed to capture sediment that has been eroded and entrained in overland flow before it enters the receiving environment.
Sediment discharge concentration: the concentration of suspended sediment in a water body.
Setback: the measured distance from a feature that creates a buffer within which activities cannot take place.
Significant natural

areas with significant indigenous vegetation and significant habitats of indigenous fauna, as outlined in section 6(c) of the RMA.
Skid site: an area of land in the forest, often specially prepared and surfaced, where logs or tree lengths extracted from the forest are accumulated, processed and loaded onto trucks for removals. Also referred to as a landing.
Slash: branches, tops, chunks, cull logs, uprooted stumps, slovens, broken trees and other waste wood left behind after harvesting.
Slash and debris traps: traps set in water bodies to trap slash and debris from forestry operations.
Soffit: the underside of a bridge.
Soil disturbance: the disturbance of the ground surface by harvesting activities such as dragging logs, but excluding earthworks.
Spoil: the by-product of excavations and earthworks (soil or rock).
Stabilisation: providing adequate measures, vegetative and/or structural, that will protect exposed soil to minimise erosion.
Stream: see definition of river.
Suspended solids: small solid particles that remain in suspension in water.
Territorial authority: a city council or district council named in Part 2 of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act.
Thinning: selective removal of trees within a stand to achieve an optimum stocking rate for the final crop. Production thinning involves the removal of the thinned trees for sale. Thin-to-waste operations leave the felled tree in situ.
Tracking: construction of temporary access structures of 1.5 m or more in width, including bladed tracks to serve as log skid roads, mobile tail-hold (backspar) trails or firebreaks, or tracks suited to light 4WD vehicles and ATVs (all-terrain vehicles). (Adapted from BC Forest Practices Code.)
Upgrade: see maintenance and upgrade of existing earthworks.
Urban /residential zone: land that a relevant operative or proposed district or regional plan classifies as primarily for residential activities.
Wāhi tapu: has the same meaning as in part 2 of the Historic Places Act 1993.
Water body: fresh water or geothermal water in a river, lake, stream, pond, wetland, or aquifer, or any part thereof, that is not located within the coastal marine area.
Water yield: the amount of water run-off coming out of a catchment over a specific period of time.
Wetland: has the same meaning as in section 2 of the RMA.
Wilding trees: the natural regeneration or seedling spread of exotic trees, occurring in areas not managed for forest production.
Windrowing: slash from forest harvesting which is mechanically piled into rows.
Woodlots: small plot of plantation forest, usually on farms.