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The practice of farming aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, or molluscs in marine and freshwater environments.

Species assessed according to the New Zealand Threat Classification System. Includes four subcategories: declining, recovering, relict, and naturally uncommon.

Fresh or salt water held in tanks and cargo holds of ships to increase stability and manoeuvrability during a voyage, and which can include a multitude of small marine organisms.

The variability among living organisms, and the ecological systems they are part of. Includes the diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.

Species not targeted by a fishery but caught accidentally during fishing operations. Once caught, they are either landed, discarded, or released.

A forest, ocean, soil, or other natural feature of the environment that accumulates and stores carbon, including carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from human activities.

Change in global or regional climate patterns, evident over an extended period (typically decades or longer). May be due to natural factors or human activities.

Seabed and subsoil of submarine areas extending out to the continental margin (the zone of the ocean floor that separates the thin oceanic crust from the thick continental crust).

Process of dragging a dredge along the seabed behind a fishing vessel (usually to harvest oysters or scallops).

Bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates with various feeding habits such as star fish, sea cucumbers, and seaurchins.

The release of a substance into the atmosphere; its concentration in the air will depend on how it disperses in the atmosphere.

An organism that occurs naturally only in one place or region.

Area of ocean extending from 12 to 200 nautical milesfrom shore, including the seabed and subsoil. NewZealand has jurisdiction over exploration and extraction of marine resources in its EEZ. The notion of the EEZ was established by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). UNCLOS provides each coastal state with exclusive rights over resources in its EEZ while clarifying access and navigational rights of foreign vessels.

The part of the continental shelf beyond the EEZ. The rightsof each coastal state to resources in its extended continental shelf was provided for by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, subject to some limitations.

The loss of a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be marked by the death of the last individual of that species.

Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons occurring naturally and resulting from human (production and consumption) activities, and contributing to the greenhouse effect (global warming).

Subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties and have relatively high atomic weight. Heavy metals can beemitted from human activities, such as vehicle tyre/brake wear and battery and steelmaking facilities, but also occur naturally.

An organism belonging naturally to a given region or ecosystem, as opposed to one that is introduced or exotic. Also referred to as ‘native’.

An international body that assesses the science related to climate change. IPCC assessments are written by hundreds of leading scientists from around the world. The assessments draw attention to areas of well-established knowledge on climate change, as well as to where multiple perspectives exist in the literature. The IPCC’s fifth assessment report was completed in November 2014.

An animal without a backbone or spinal column. Corals, sponges, and jellyfish are examples of marine invertebrates. Land examples are insects, spiders, andslaters.

The knowledge, comprehension, or understanding of everything visible and invisible existing in the universe, and often used to mean ‘wisdom’. Often includes present-day, historic, local, and traditional knowledge; systems for transferring and storing knowledge; and goals, aspirations, and issues from an indigenous perspective.

A warm-blooded animal that breathes through lungs, gives birth to live young, nurses its young with milk from mammary glands, and has adapted to living all or part of their life in the ocean. For example, seals, sea lions, whales, dolphins, sea otters, walruses, and polar bears.

Rate of fishing that exceeds the rate at which the stock is naturally replenished and will lead to a stock falling below management targets and/or limits.

Measure of acidity/alkalinity, with measures below 7 being acid and above 7 being alkaline.

System established in 1986 to control the total commercial catch for most of the main fish stocks in New Zealand’s exclusive economic zone.

Species that breed in New Zealand.

Species or subspecies that have undergone a documented decline within the past 1,000 years and now occupy less than 10 percent of their former range, and that meet criteria set out in the New Zealand Threat Classification System.

A mountain under the sea.

A basic unit of biological classification, comprising individual organisms very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, and genetics, due to having relatively recent common ancestors. Species can interbreed.

When a finding is likely to be due to something other than random chance. A statistically significant finding is determined by tests based on the 95 percent confidence interval. This interval shows the range of values that would include the estimate 95 percent of the time if the test was repeated multiple times.

A subdivision of a species, usually as a consequence ofgeographic isolation. A subspecies is genetically distinguishable from other populations of the same species.

Area of sea extending from the coast to the 12 nautical mile limit.

Species assessed according to the New Zealand Threat Classification System as being threatened with extinction. Includes three subcategories: nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable.

Process of dragging a trawl net behind a fishing vessel, along or just above the seabed.