This appendix is not intended to prescribe the analytical methods that should be used. Other methods may be applicable. Note that any method can be used, provided it has been validated by the laboratory for the type of samples being analysed.
|Parameter||Extraction technique||Instrumental method||Advantages||Disadvantages|
|Metals, general||None||X-ray fluorescence||Gives true total metals Portable instruments can be used for field screening||Cannot analyse elements with atomic mass < sodium (eg, boron, fluorine)|
|Total recoverable extraction (US EPA 200.2)||Atomic absorption spectrometry||One element at a time, so may be slow turnaround|
|Graphite furnace AAS||Low detection limits||One element at a time, so may be slow turnaround|
|Inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry||Multi-element|
|Inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry||Low detection limits; multi-element|
|Chromium VI||Phosphate buffer extraction; colorimetry||Spectrophotometer|
|Arsenic III||Hydride generation AAS|
|SVOC||Solvent extraction (sonication, ASE, SFE, tumbling, microwave-assisted extraction, etc)||Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry||Screening technique||Not all peaks are calibrated|
|TPH||Solvent extraction (sonication, ASE, SFE, etc.)||Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection||Rapid screening technique||Extraction can include compounds other than hydrocarbons (solvents, etc.) and method not suitable for volatiles|
|Combination of solvent extraction with purge and trap or headspace||Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry||Can include compounds down to C6|
|VOC||Methanol extraction||Purge-and-trap gas chromatography – mass spectrometry||Screening technique||Not all peaks are calibrated|
|BTEX||Methanol extraction||Purge and trap gas chromatography – mass spectrometry|
Notes: AAS = Atomic absorption spectroscopy; ASE = Accelerated Solvent Extraction; SFE = Supercritical Fluid Extraction.