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Appendix 1: Checklist for Landowners to Assess Sheep-dip Sites and Management Options

1. Background information

How many years have you owned the property?

What is the current land use where the disused sheep dip is located?

  • sheep and/or beef
  • dairy
  • viticulture
  • horticulture
  • agriculture
  • lifestyle block
  • subdivided for residential
  • other (eg, parkland).

To help identify the chemicals used and relevant toxicity of the former dip site it is useful to establish the following:

1) What is the age of the dip?

2) What was the historical use of the dip?

  • regular on-farm treatment (eg, plunge dip)
  • portable units
  • communal dip used by surrounding farms
  • spraying unit
  • other - specify here.

If this was a communal dip there is potential for higher levels of contamination.

3) Do you know which chemicals or products were used in the dips? (Refer to Table A.1 for a list of sheep-dipping chemicals and products.)

2. Locating the former sheep dip or dips (note: some properties may have had several dip sites)

1) Is it located near a woolshed?

2) Is it located near sheep yards?

3) Is it located near a water supply?

4) Check for visible signs of structures:

  • concrete structures either intact or residual/destroyed structures
  • timber structures or corrugated iron spray booths
  • water races going nowhere
  • old pipes
  • a depression that has been backfilled.

5) What dip types or associated structures can you identify:

(i) below-ground structures:

  • swim-through dips
  • pot dips
  • plunge dips

(ii) above-ground structures:

  • spray dips (both race type and circular).

Other associated structures include:

  • a draining platform drip pen near the dip (this may or may not have been concreted)
  • a below-ground storage tank made of concrete (there may be a visible drainage outlet).

3. Contacting local people

Are you able to confirm the location of the sheep-dip site through talking to neighbouring farmers or local residents?

Yes

No

4. Chemical storage location

Do you know where chemicals were stored for the sheep dip?

Yes

No

If yes, have you checked that chemicals are no longer stored on the property and are disposed of appropriately?

Yes

No

Note: some chemicals no longer in use are recognised as being persistent in the environment. Call your council for free disposal advice.

5. What to do when a dip site is found

1) Identify the buffer zone of the draining platform, potential run-off area and discharge points. Ten metres is recommended as an adequate buffer zone from the dip.

2) If located near a bore, is this water bore in use today?

Yes

No

3) Is there potential concern for groundwater movement in relation to the dip site?

Yes

No

4) Are there any surface water bodies?

Yes

No

5) Check if the water gradient of the dip site might have caused contamination down-gradient.

Note: if contaminants are identified in the water, any risks for exposure of people or animals to this water supply need to be assessed. It may be necessary to divert run-off or disconnect receiving waters.

6. When is a site investigation required?

A site investigation is required:

  • for application to subdivide
  • for potential land sale
  • for land-use change
  • for discharge of contaminants to waterways and groundwater.

Note: It will be necessary in most cases to resort to an environmental assessment by a qualified experienced practitioner.

7. What areas need assessment?

Areas that need assessment include:

  • soil beneath the bath
  • structures used for dipping
  • soil in the splash zone
  • soil in the disposal/run-off area and where dip liquid was drained
  • any bores in proximity to the dip site
  • draining platform area.

Soil analysis will confirm the presence of contaminants.

8. Management options (to be determined in conjunction with council or specialist advice)

1) Isolate the site from people, crops and animals by:

  • fencing off
  • planting (plantation forest).

2) Dig and dump to an approved landfill: material needs to meet acceptance criteria and the site requires validation.

3) Cap or encapsulate: this may require an impervious membrane.

4) Do nothing: accept the risk to the environment (including people) and produce.

Table A.1: List of historical sheep-dipping chemicals and products (not exhaustive)

Source

Location

Vol

Page

Year

Product name

Active ingredient

Manufacturer

NZJAg

RuakLib

71

397

1945

Viper

Derris (= Rotenone)

Osmond and Sons (NZ) Limited

NZJAg

RuakLib

71

410

1945

Cooper's quick acting powder

Derris (+ arsenic?)

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

     

410

1945

McDougall's premier powder

Derris (+ arsenic?)

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

NZJAg

RuakLib

97

?

1958

Altas

Aldrin, contains antiseptic

Tasman Vaccine Laboratory Limited

   

97

?

1958

Dieltas

Dieldrin, contains antiseptic

Tasman Vaccine Laboratory Limited

NZJAg

RuakLib

B181

47?

1955

Cleanso ditox

Gammexane (lindane) + DDT

Farmers Industries Limited, Wanganui

     

47?

1955

Cleanso

Arsenic powder + derris

Farmers Industries Limited, Wanganui

     

47?

1955

Cleanso

Arsenic paste + derris

Farmers Industries Limited, Wanganui

     

47?

1955

Cleanso

Arsenic fluid

Farmers Industries Limited, Wanganui

SFAnn

RuakLib

 

89

1948

Green label paste

Gammexane (lindane)

Young's

     

89

1948

Improved powder

Arsenic with Gammexane (lindane)

Young's

     

89

1948

Red label paste

Arsenic with derris

Young's

SFAnn

RuakLib

 

94

1948

 

Arsenical liquid

Murtons

SFAnn

RuakLib

 

25

1948

Cooper's louse powder

Gammexane (lindane)

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

NZJAg

RuakLib

97

378

1958

Young's sheep-dip, dust and spray

Dieldrin

Young's

NZJAg

RuakLib

97

418

1958

Elliotts dips and spray rig

Dieldrin

Elliotts New Zealand company, ELLCO Limited

NZJAg

RuakLib

97

448

1958

Not applicable

Aldrin and dieldrin

Shell Agricultural Chemicals

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

309

1956

Cooper's louse powder

BHC − Gammexane (lindane)

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

330

1956

Nexa sheep-dip

BHC − Gammexane (lindane)

Weedone Services − Ivon Watkins Limited

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

444

1956

Elliotts all-dip

Aldrin

Elliotts New Zealand company, ELLCO Limited

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

464

1956

Dieldrin dips

Dieldrin

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

532

1956

Cooper's dieldrin dips

Dieldrin

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

546

1956

Tartan aldrin and dieldrin sheep dips

Aldrin and dieldrin

Farm Chemicals Company, Nelson

NZJAg

RuakLib

93

556

1956

Young's sheep-dip

Dieldrin, DDT, BHC, derris, arsenic

Young's

Young Farm

Arch

 

286

1957

Tartan dieldrin sheep dust

Dieldrin

Farm Chemicals Company, Nelson

NZFarm

AlexTurn

 

221

1916

McDougall's sheep-dip

Arsenic and sulphur (+ some carbolic acid)

Cooper McDougall & Robertson

Source: Stage 1 report, App 7.1 Advertisements for sheep-dipping chemicals and equipment (altered).

Notes: NZJAg = New Zealand Journal of Agriculture; SFAnn = Sheepfarmers Annual; Young Farm = Young Farmer; NZFarm = New Zealand Farmer; RuakLib = Ruakura Library; Arch = National Archives, Wellington; AlexTurn = Alexander Turnbull Library.