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agricultural intensification                  

 An increase in agricultural production per unit of inputs (which may be labour, land, time, fertiliser, seed, feed or cash).


The cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.


An underground layer of water-bearing rock or sand from which groundwater can be extracted.


The variability among living organisms, and the ecological systems they are part of. Includes the diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.


 Area of land in which rainfall drains toward a common stream, river, lake, or estuary.

climate change                                      

Change in global or regional climate patterns, evident over an extended period (typically decades or longer). May be due to natural factors or human activities.

E.coli (Escherichia coli)                         

Bacteria normally found in the gut of warm-blooded animals and people. Some types can cause illness, such asCampylobacter,which can be transmitted through contaminated water or food, or through contact with infected animals or people.


A community of plants, animals, and microorganisms in a particular place or area, interacting with the non-living components of their environment (like air, water, and mineral soil).


A plant or animal that occurs naturally only in one place or region.


Water located beneath earth’s surface in pore spaces (the spaces within a rock body that are not occupied by solid material) and fractures of rock formations.


A combination of environmental factors that provides food, water, cover, and space that a living thing needs to survive and reproduce.


For river and lake water quality analyses, indeterminate means there is not enough data to determine trend direction (Larned et al, 2015). For groundwater quality, indeterminate means the trend was not significant at a p‑value < 0.05.


Belonging naturally to a given region or ecosystem, as opposed to an animal or plant that is exotic or introduced. Also referred to as ‘native’.


An animal without a backbone or spinal column. Insects, spiders, worms, slaters, and many marine animals such as corals, sponges, and jellyfish are examples of invertebrates.


Small animal that has no backbone and can be seen with the naked eye (eg insects, freshwater crayfish, snails, and worms).

mahinga kai                                         

Customary food gathering. Mahinga kai also refers to the native freshwater species of plants, fish, and animals that have traditionally been used as food, tools, and other resources.

mātauranga Māori                              

The knowledge, comprehension, or understanding of everything visible and invisible existing in the universe, and often used to mean ‘wisdom’. Often includes present-day, historic, local, and traditional knowledge; systems for transferring and storing knowledge; and goals, aspirations, and issues from an indigenous perspective.


Mauri means life force. It is the spark of life, the active component that indicates life. Mauri is found in all living things on earth, forests, rivers, gardens, lakes, the sea, and the air. For Māori, all parts of the environment – animate and inanimate – are infused with mauri (life force) and are connected to one another.


The midpoint of a series when the data are listed in ascending order. Half the numbers or values are above the midpoint, and half are below it.

monitoring site                                      

Site where equipment is deployed to sample and/or measure the quality of water.


Belonging naturally to a given region or ecosystem, as opposed to an animal or plant that is exotic or introduced. Also referred to as ‘indigenous’.


Land use for keeping and grazing livestock.


Relating to, or situated on, the bank of a river or other water body.


A basic unit of biological classification, comprising individual organisms that are very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, and genetics, due to having relatively recent common ancestors. Species can interbreed.

stream order                                           

Strahler stream order is used to define stream size based on a hierarchy of streams from the source (or headwaters) downstream. When two first-order streams come together, they form a second-order stream. When two second-order streams come together, they form a third-order stream, and so on. At a confluence, if the two streams are not of the same order, then the highest numbered order is maintained on the downstream segment.


The description, identification, naming, and classification of organisms.