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Appendix B: Hazardous Activities and Industries List

The following list is an abridged version of the Hazardous Activities and Industries List (HAIL) taken from Ministry for the Environment, 2004. That document should be consulted for the full descriptions and most current version. The hazardous substances have been taken mainly from Table I1 in AS 4482.1-1997, Guide to Sampling and Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Soil. Part 1: Non-volatile and semi-volatile compounds, and Potentially Contaminating Activities, Industries and Landuses (Department of Environmental Protection, Government of Western Australia, 2001). Other substances have been added to the list based on the experience of New Zealand contaminated site practitioners.

Activity or industry Hazardous substances

1. Abrasive blasting - carrying out abrasive blast cleaning (other than cleaning carried out in fully enclosed booths) or disposing of abrasive blasting material

Heavy metals, iron

2. Acid/alkali plant, formulation and bulk storage

Mercury; sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids; sodium and calcium hydroxide

3. Agrichemical spray contractor's premises used for filling and washing out tanks for commercial agrichemical application

Arsenic, lead, copper, organic pesticides

4. Airports - fuel storage, workshops, washdown areas, stormwater run-off from hardstanding

Hydrocarbons, metals

5. Analysts - commercial analytical laboratory sites

Solvents, acids, mercury

6. Asbestos products production and disposal; also sites with buildings containing asbestos products known to be in a deteriorated condition


7. Asphalt or bitumen manufacture or bulk storage - manufacturing asphalt or bitumen, or bulk storage of these products, other than at a single-use site used by a mobile asphalt plant

Petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs

8. Battery manufacture or recycling - assembling, disassembling, manufacturing or recycling batteries (other than storing batteries for retail sale)

Heavy metals (lead, mercury, zinc, cadmium, nickel, antimony, silver, manganese), sulphuric acid

9. Brake lining manufacturers, repairers and recyclers

Asbestos, copper

10. Cement or lime manufacturing - manufacturing cement or lime from limestone material using a kiln and storing wastes from the manufacturing process

Lime, calcium hydroxide, alkalis

11. Cemeteries

Nitrates, lead, formaldehyde, biological hazards

12. Chemical manufacture and formulation and bulk storage such that land-use consent is required

Wide range of organic and inorganic compounds - see AS 4482.1, Table II

13. Coal and coke yards


14. Concrete manufacture and bulk cement storage

Cement, calcium hydroxide, alkalis

15. Defence works and defence establishments, including ordinance storage and training areas where live firing is carried out

Explosives, lead, copper, antimony (firing ranges), solvents and metals (workshops), hydrocarbon storage

16. Drum and tank reconditioning or recycling

Wide range of chemicals from drums

17. Dry-cleaning plants - restricted to premises where dry cleaning is carried out and solvents are stored

Trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, VOCs

18. Electrical transformers - manufacturing, repairing or disposing of electrical transformers or other heavy electrical equipment

PCBs, hydrocarbons, copper, tin, lead, mercury

19. Engine reconditioning - use of solvents and degreasers

Solvents, hydrocarbons, heavy metals

20. Explosive production or bulk storage

Acetone, nitric and sulphuric acid, ammonium nitrate, fuel oil, PCP, nitroglycerine, lead, mercury, copper, aluminium, silver, sodium hydroxide

21. Fertiliser manufacture - manufacturing or bulk storage of agriculture fertiliser

Calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate, copper chloride, sulphur, sulphuric acid, molybdenum, selenium, boron, cadmium, nitrates, ammonia

22. Foundry operations - commercial production of metal products by injecting or pouring molten metal into moulds and associated activities

Metals (particularly iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, copper, tin, nickel, chromium, and oxides, chlorides, fluorides and sulphates of these), acids, coke, fuel oil

23. Gasworks - manufacture of town gas from coal or oil feedstocks

PAHs, phenolics, BTEX, metals (particularly arsenic, lead, copper, chromium), cyanide compounds, sulphides and sulphates, thiocyanates, ammonia, nitrates, coke

24. Gun, pistol or rifle ranges

Metals - lead, antimony, copper, zinc, tin, nickel

25. Iron and steel works

BTEX, phenolics, PAHs, metals and oxides of iron, nickel, copper, chromium, magnesium and manganese

26. Landfill sites

Hydrocarbons, BTEX, PAHs, metals, organic acids, landfill gas

27. Livestock dip or spray race operations

Arsenic, organochlorines and organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids

28. Market gardens, orchards, glass houses or other areas where the use of persistent agricultural chemicals occurred

Arsenic, lead, copper, mercury, organochlorines and organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids

29. Metal treatment or coating - including polishing, anodising, galvanising, pickling, electroplating, heat treatment using cyanide compounds and finishing; curing works or commercially finishing leather

Metals (zinc, aluminium, cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, tin), acids (sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, phosphoric), sodium hydroxide, solvents and degreasers, cyanide

30. Mining and extractive industries and mineral processing - including chemically or physically extracting metalliferous ores, exposure of faces or release of groundwater containing hazardous contaminants, and storing hazardous wastes, including waste dumps and tailings dams, but not gravel extraction

Arsenic, mercury, cyanides, sulphides, metals - also workshop activities, fuel storage

31. Motor vehicle workshops

Hydrocarbons, PAHs, solvents, metals

32. Paint manufacture and formulation

Solvents, resins, heavy metals

33. Pest control - commercially operating premises (or former pest destruction board, now regional council sites) where storage and preparation of pesticide occurs, including preparation of poisoned baits and filling or washing of tanks

Arsenic, cyanide, strychnine, mercury, phosphorus, 1080

34. Pesticide manufacture (including animal poisons, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) - commercially manufacturing, blending, mixing or formulating pesticides

Wide range of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, including arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, tin, chromium, organochlorines, organonitrogens, organophosphates, acid herbicides, dioxin, carbamates

35. Petroleum or petrochemical industries or storage, including oil production and operating a petroleum depot, terminal, blending plant or refinery, retail or commercial refuelling facility, and facilities for recovery, reprocessing or recycling petroleum-based materials and bulk storage above and below ground

Hydrocarbons, including BTEX, PAHs, solvents, lead

36. Pharmaceutical manufacture - commercially manufacturing, blending, mixing or formulating pharmaceuticals, including animal remedies


37. Port activities - including dry docks and ship and boat maintenance facilities

Metals, paint residues (tin, lead), fuel storage

38. Power stations and switchyards

PCBs , asbestos, metals (in fly ash), water treatment chemicals (thermal stations)

39. Printing - commercial printing, using metal type, inks and dyes, or solvents

Solvents, acids, alkalis, heavy metals

40. Railway yards - operating a railway yard including goods-handling yards, workshops, refuelling facilities and maintenance areas

Hydrocarbons, heavy metals, solvents

41. Sawmills - use of antisapstain chemicals during milling

Antisapstain fungicides, PCP, hydrocarbons

42. Scrap yards - operating a scrap yard including automotive dismantling or wrecking yard or scrap metal yard

Metals, hydrocarbons, solvents

43. Service stations

Hydrocarbons, lead, copper

44. Smelting or refining - fusing or melting metalliferous ores or refining the metal

Metals and oxides, fluorides and chlorides thereof

45. Tannery, fellmongery or hide curing - operating a tannery or fellmongery or hide-curing works or commercially finishing leather

Chromium, manganese, copper, ammonia, sulphides, acids, sodium hydroxide, lime

46. Transport depots

Hydrocarbon fuels, metals in workshops

47. Storage tanks and drum storage for fuel, chemicals and liquid waste

Wide range of chemicals, biological hazards

48. Waste storage, treatment and/or disposal including land disposal of wastes, but not the use of biosolids as soil conditioners

Depends on type of waste - biological hazards (bacteria, viruses), metals, PAHs, semi-volatile organic compounds, solvents

49. Wood treatment and preservation and bulk storage of treated timber

PCP, copper, arsenic, chromium, boron organo-tin, PAHs and phenolics (creosote), organochlorine pesticides

50. Wool, hide and skin merchants (eg, drying, scouring)


51. Any other facility or activity that stores, uses or disposes of hazardous substances in sufficient quantity that intentional or accidental discharge of the substance could be a risk to human health or the environment