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Auckland Regional Council. 1999. Guidelines for Stormwater Runoff Modelling in the Auckland Region. Technical Publication No. 108. Retrieved from

Bandaragoda C, Tarboton DG, Woods R. 2004. Application of TopNet in the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project. Journal of Hydrology 298: 178–201.

Beffa C, Connell RJ. 2001. Two-dimensional flood-plain flow: I: Model description. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 6(5): 397–405.

Burgess SM. 2005. 2004/05 Tropical cyclone summary. Island Climate Update 57(6). Retrieved from

Clark MP, Woods RA, Zheng X, Ibbitt RP, Slater AG, Rupp DE, et al. 2008. Hydrological data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman Filter: Use of streamflow observations to update states in a distributed hydrological model. Advances in Water Resources, doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.1006.1005.

Cotton WR, Pielke RA Sr, Walko RL, Liston GE, Tremback CJ, Jiang H, et al. 2003. RAMS 2001: Current status and future directions. Meteorological Atmospheric Physics 82: 5–29.

Diamond H. 2006. Review of recent tropical cyclone research. Island Climate Update 72(6). Retrieved from:

Drost F, Renwick JA, Bhaskaran B, Oliver H, McGregor J. 2007. Simulation of New Zealand’s climate using a high-resolution nested regional climate model. International Journal of Climatology 27(9): 1153–1169.

Folland CK, Renwick JA, Salinger MJ, Mullan AB. 2002. Relative influences of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and ENSO in the South Pacific Convergence Zone. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (13): 21–1–21–4. doi:10.1029/2001GL014201.

Goring DG, Bell RG. 1999. El Nino and decadal effects on sea-level variability in northern New Zealand: A wavelet analysis. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33(4): 587–598.

Gray W, Ibbitt R, Turner R, Duncan M, Hollis M. 2005. A Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on Flood Risk in New Zealand. NIWA Client Report No. CHC2005-060. Retrieved from change-flood-risk-jul05/index.html

Griffiths GA, Pearson CP, Horrell GA. 1989. Rainfall-runoff routing in the Waimakariri Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 28(2): 111–122.

Griffiths GM. 2006. Changes in New Zealand daily rainfall extremes 1930–2004. Weather and Climate 26: 3–46.

Hicks DM, Mason PD. 1998. Roughness Characteristics of New Zealand Rivers. Englewood, CO: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Water Resources Publications, LLC.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2000. Summary for policymakers. Emission Scenarios. A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Nebojsa Nakicenovic and Rob Swart (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 570. Available from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU ENGLAND. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. pp 20. Retrieved from

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Summary for policymakers. In: S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, KB Averyt, et al (eds). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY. Retrieved from AR4WG1_Pub_SPM-v2.pdf

Laurenson EM, Mein RG, Nathan RJ. 2007. RORB Version 6 Runoff Routing Program User Manual. Melbourne, Australia: Monash University and Sinclair Knight Merz. Lenderink G, van Meijgaard E. 2008. Increase in hourly precipitation extremes beyond expectations from temperature changes. Nature Online 20 July 2008, doi:10.1038/ngeo262.

Leong DCK, Jordan RS, Ibbitt RP. 1992. The potential effects of climate change on river protection: Case study on the Hutt River. Publication No. 26 of the Hydrology Centre. Christchurch. DSIR Marine and Freshwater, 1992.

Lim EP, Simmonds I. 2002. Explosive cyclone development in the southern hemisphere and a comparison with northern hemisphere events. Monthly Weather Review 130: 2188–2209.

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McKerchar AI, Henderson RD. 2003. Shifts in flood and low-flow regimes in New Zealand due to interdecadal climate variations. Hydrological Sciences Journal 48(4): 637–654.

McKerchar AI, Macky GH. 2001. Comparison of a regional method for estimating design floods with two rainfall-based methods. Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 40(2): 129–138.

McKerchar AI, Pearson CP. 1989. Flood Frequency in New Zealand. Publication No 20 of the Hydrology Centre. Christchurch: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch RM, Kundzewicz ZW, Lettenmaier DP, et al. 2008. Climate change: Stationarity is dead: Whither water management? Science 319(5863): 573–574.

Ministry for the Environment. 2004a. Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand. Wellington: NZ Climate Change Office, Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved from: climate/effects-impacts-may04/

Ministry for the Environment. 2004b. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guide for Local Government in New Zealand. Retrieved from publications/climate/

Ministry for the Environment. 2008a. Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand (2nd edition May 2008). Retrieved from:

Ministry for the Environment. 2008b. Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand (2nd edition July 2008). Retrieved from:

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Pall P, Allen MR, Stone DA. 2007. Testing the Clausius–Clapeyron constraint on changes in extreme precipitation under CO2 warming. Climate Dynamics 28: 351–363.

Pielke RA, Cotton WR, Walko RL, Tremback CJ, Lyons WA, Grasso LD, et al. 1992. A comprehensive meteorological modelling system: RAMS. Meteorological Atmospheric Physics 49: 69–91.

Salinger MJ, Renwick JA, Mullan AB. 2001. Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and South Pacific Climate. International Journal of Climatology 21: 1705–1721.

Sansom J, Renwick JA. 2007. Climate change scenarios for New Zealand rainfall. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46(5): 573–590.

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Simmonds I, Keay K. 2000. Variability of southern hemisphere extratropical cyclone behaviour, 1958–97. Journal of Climate 13: 550–561.

Tait A, Henderson RD, Turner R, Zheng X. 2006. Thin plate smoothing spline interpolation of daily rainfall for New Zealand using a climatological rainfall surface. International Journal of Climatology 26(14): 2097–2115.

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Yates D, Gangopadhyay S, Rajagopalau B, Strzepek K. 2003. A technique for generating regional climate scenarios using a nearest neighbour algorithm. Water Resources Research 39: 1199, doi:10.1029/2002WR001769.Zhang Y, Wang WC. 1997. Model-simulated northern winter cyclone and anticyclone activity under a greenhouse warming scenario. Journal of Climate 10: 1616–1634.