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References

General references

FCCC/SBSTA/2004/8. Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, Part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories (following incorporation of the provisions of decision 13/CP.9). UNFCCC.

IPCC 1995. Houghton, JT, Meira Filho, LG, Callender, BA, Harris, N, Kattenberg, A, Maskell, K (Eds). Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: UK. 572.

IPCC 1996. Houghton, JT, Meira Filho, LG, Lim, B, Treanton, K, Mamaty, I, Bonduki, Y, Griggs, DJ, Callender, BA (Eds). IPCC/OECD/IEA. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. UK Meteorological Office: Bracknell.

IPCC 2000. Penman, J, Kruger, D, Galbally, I, Hiraishi, T, Nyenzi, B, Emmanul, S, Buendia, L, Hoppaus, R, Martinsen, T, Meijer, J, Miwa, K, Tanabe, K (Eds). Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC 2001. Houghton, JT, Ding, Y, Griggs, DJ, Noguer, M, van der Linden, PJ, Xiaosu, D (Eds). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press: UK. 944.

IPCC 2003. Penman, J, Gytarsky, M, Hiraishi, T, Krug, T, Kruger, D, Pipatti, R, Buendia, L, Miwa, K, Ngara, T, Tanabe, K, Wagner, F (Eds). Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

UNFCCC 2001a. FCCC/WEB/IRI(1)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. Desk Review (20 June 2001).

UNFCCC 2001b. FCCC/WEB/IRI(2)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. In-country Review (20 July 2001).

UNFCCC 2001c. FCCC/WEB/IRI(3)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. Centralised Review (30 May 2001).

UNFCCC 2003. FCCC/WEB/IRI(1)/2002/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2002. Desk Review (13 October 2003).

United Nations 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Specific references for Chapter 3: Energy

Baines, JT 1993. New Zealand Energy Information Handbook: energy data conversion factors and definitions. Taylor Baines and Associates: Christchurch, New Zealand.

Beamish, BB, Vance, WE 1992. Greenhouse Gas Contributions from Coal Mining in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 22 (2).

Bone, IH, Hunt, M, Spring C 1993. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Zealand Transport. Report by Beca Carter Hollings and Ferner Limited, for the Ministry of Transport.

Hale and Twomey Ltd 2003. Review of Energy Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factors. Report to Energy Modelling and Statistics Unit, Ministry of Economic Development.

IEA (International Energy Agency) 2005. CO2Emissions From Fuel Combustion 1990–2003. International Energy Agency: Paris.

Ministry of Economic Development 2006a. New Zealand Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990–2005. Ministry of Economic Development: New Zealand.

Ministry of Economic Development 2006b. New Zealand Energy Data File. Ministry of Economic Development: New Zealand.

Waring, P, Raine, R, Elder, ST 1991. Oxides of Nitrogen Study: NOxemission levels from the New Zealand transport fleet with special reference to greenhouse gas warming. Report by DSIR Industrial Development for the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Specific references for Chapter 4: Industrial processes

Bloor, D 2005. Personal communication. New Zealand Aluminium Smelter: New Zealand.

Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand 1995. The state of the standards. New Zealand Concrete Construction. October/November 1995 p40.

CRL Energy Ltd 2006a. Hennessy, W, Maxwell, D (Ed). Inventory of Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Sources and Solvents for New Zealand 2004–2005. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

CRL Energy Ltd 2006b. Hennessy, W, Maxwell, D (Ed). Inventory of HFC, PFC & SF6 Emissions for New Zealand 2004–2005. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Hamilton, S 2007. Personal communication. New Zealand Aluminium Smelter: New Zealand.

Ministry of Economic Development 2006a. New Zealand Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990–2005. Ministry of Economic Development: New Zealand.

Ministry of Economic Development 2006b. New Zealand Energy Data File. Ministry of Economic Development: New Zealand.

Roke, L 2006. Personal communication. Fisher and Paykel: New Zealand.

Ure, CR 2000. Alternative ironmaking at BHP New Zealand Steel. 58th Electric Furnace Conference and 17th Process Technology Conference; Orlando, FL, USA: 12–15 November 2000. pp535–546.

Specific references for Chapter 5: Solvent and other product use

Auckland Regional Council 1997. Auckland Air Emissions Inventory. Report by the Victorian Environmental Protection Agency: New Zealand.

CRL Energy Ltd 2006a. Hennessy, W, Maxwell, D (Eds). Inventory of Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Sources and Solvents for New Zealand 2004–2005. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Nelson, P 1992. Waste Control and Pollution Prevention in the Paint Industry. Surface Coatings Australia (July).

United States EPA 1985. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Vol. 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th edition (commonly known as AP-42). United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Specific references for Chapter 6: Agriculture

CSIRO 1990. Feeding Standards for Australian Livestock: Ruminants.

Carran, RA, Theobold, PW, Evans, JP 1995. Emissions of nitrous oxide from some grazed pasture soils. New Zealand and Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 341–352.

Carran, RA, Dewar, D, Theobald, PW 2003. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from sheep dung. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry by the New Zealand Pastoral Agricultural Research Institute. 29.

Clark, H, Brookes, I, Walcroft, A 2003. Enteric methane emissions from New Zealand ruminants 1990–2001 calculated using an IPCC Tier 2 approach. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (March 2003).

de Klein, CAM, Barton, L, Sherlock, RR, Li, Z, Littlejohn, RP 2003. Estimating a nitrous oxide emission factor for animal urine from some New Zealand pastoral soils.Australian Journal of Soil Research 41: 381–399.

Grainger, C, Clarke, T, McGinn, SM, Auldist, MJ, Beauchemin, KA, Hannah, MC, Waghorn, GC, Clark, H, Eckard, RJ 2007. Methane emissions from dairy cows measured with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer and chamber techniques. Journal of Dairy Science. In press.

Heatley, P 2001. Dairyingand the environment: managing farm dairy effluent. New Zealand Dairy Research Institute: Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Kay, RNB 1995. Body Size, Patterns of Growth, and Efficiency of Production in Red Deer. In: Biology of Deer Production. Fennessey, PF, Drew, KR (Eds). Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 22: 411–421.

Kelliher, FM, Clough, T, Newsome, P, Pitcher-Campbell, S, Shephard, G 2002. N2O emissions from organic soils. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (June 2002).

Kelliher, FM, Ledgard, SF, Clark, H, Walcroft, AS, Buchan, M, Sherlock, RR 2003. A Revised Nitrous Oxide Emissions Inventory for New Zealand 1990–2001. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (March 2003).

Kelliher, FM, de Klein, CAM 2006. Review of New Zealand’s fertiliser nitrous oxide emission factor (EF1) data. A Report for the Ministry for the Environment (April 2006): New Zealand.

Kelliher, FM; de Klein, CAM; Li, Z; Sherlock, RR 2005. Review of nitrous oxide emission factor (EF3) data. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry. 20.

Lassey, KR, Martin, RJ, Brailsford, GW, Waghorn, GC, Ulyatt, MJ, Zimmerman, PR, Westberg, HH, Johnson, K 1995. Ruminant methane measurements: preliminary trials. NIWA Science and Technology Series 22. NIWA Science and Technology: Lower Hutt, New Zealand.

Lassey, KR, Ulyatt, MJ, Martin, RJ, Walker, CF, Shelton, ID 1997. Methane Emissions Measured Directly from Grazing Livestock in New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment 31: 2905–2914.

Laubach, J, Kelliher, FM 2004. Measuring methane emission rates of a dairy cow herd by two micrometeorological techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125: 279–303.

Ledgard, S, Brier, G 2004. Estimation of the proportion of animal excreta transferred to the farm dairy effluent effluent system. Report prepared for Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand.

Ledgard, SF, Webby, R, Hawke, M 2003. Improved estimation of N excretion by grazing animals to improve N2O emission inventories. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 29.

Livestock Improvement Corporation Limited 2006. Dairy Statistics 2005-2006.

McGrath, RJ, Mason, IG 2002. An observational method for assessment of biogas production from an anaerobic waste stabilisation pond treating farm dairy wastewater. Presented IWA Specialised Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds (April 2002): Auckland, New Zealand.

Muller, C, Sherlock RR, Williams, PH 1995. Direct field measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from urine-affected and urine-unaffected pasture in Canterbury. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on fertilizer requirements of grazed pasture and field crops: macro and micronutrients. Currie, LD, Loganathan, P (Eds). Occasional Report No. 8, ISSN 0112–9902: 7. Massey University: Palmerston North. 243–34.

Payton, IJ, Pearce, G 2001. Does fire deplete physical and biological resources of tall-tussock (Chionochloa) grasslands? The latest attempt at some answers. Bushfire 2001. Australasian Bushfire Conference, 3–6 July 2001, Christchurch, New Zealand. 243–249.

Saggar, S, Clark, H., Hedley, C, Tate, K, Carran, A, Cosgrove, G 2003. Methane emissions from animal dung and waste management systems, and its contribution to national budget. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0301/02. Prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand. 39.

Sherlock, RR, Johnston, G, Kelliher, F, Newsome, P, Walcroft A, de Klein, CAM, Ledgard, S 2001. A desktop study of regional variations in nitrous oxide emissions. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand.

Sherlock, RR, de Klein, C, Li, Z 2003. Determination of N2O and CH4emission factors from animal excreta, following a summer application in 3 regions of New Zealand. A final report of an NzOnet study prepared for Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand. 27.

Thomas, SM, Ledgard, SF, Francis, GS 2003. Appropriateness of IPCC default values for estimating New Zealand’s indirect nitrous oxide emissions. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Thomas, SM, Ledgard, SF, Francis, GS 2005. Improving estimates of nitrate leaching for quantifying New Zealand’s indirect nitrous oxide emissions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 73: 213–226.

Ulyatt, MJ, Baker, SK, McCrabb, GJ, Lassey, KR 1999. Accuracy of the SF6 Tracer Technology and Alternatives for Field Measurements. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 1329–1334.

Waghorn, G, Molano, G, Lassey, K 2002. Estimates of whole herd methane production from cows at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm in January and March 2002. A preliminary report to Landcare Research (unpublished): New Zealand. 17.

Waghorn, G, Molano, G, Cavanagh, A 2003. An Estimate of Whole Herd Methane Production from Cows at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm in October 2003. Final report prepared for Landcare Research NZ Ltd., AgResearch: Palmerston North. 23.

Wheeler, DM, Ledgard SF, De Klein, CAM, Monaghan, PL, Carey, PL, McDowell, RW, Johns, KL 2003. OVERSEER® Nutrient budgets – moving towards on-farm resource accounting. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 2003.

Specific references for Chapter 7: Land use, land-use change and forestry

Beets, PN, Robertson, K, Ford-Robertson, JB, Gordon, J, Maclaren, JP 1999. Description and Validation of C-change: A Model for Simulating Carbon Content in Managed Pinus Radiata Stands. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 29(3): 409–427.

Garcia, O 1984. Nagumo, H et al (eds). FOLPI: a forestry-oriented linear programming interpreter. IUFRO symposium on Forest Management, Planning and Managerial Economics. University of Tokyo: Japan. 293–305.

Hollinger, DY, Maclaren, JP, Beets, PN, Turland, J 1993. Carbon sequestration by New Zealand’s plantation forests. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 23(2).

Hall, G, Wiser, S, Allen, R, Moore, T, Beets, P, Goulding, C 1998. Estimate of the carbon stored in New Zealand’s indigenous forest and scrub vegetation for 1990. Report for the Ministry for the Environment, Landcare Research and Forest Research: Hamilton, New Zealand.

Jaakko Poyry Consulting 2003. Small Forest owners yield table evaluation. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand.

Manley 2004. Review of NEFD Yield Table Structure. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand.

Manley, B, Papps, S, Threadgill, J, Wakelin, S 1991. Application of FOLPI, A Linear Programming Estate Modelling System for Forest Management Planning. Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin No. 164.

Ministry for the Environment 2006a. New Zealand’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol:Facilitating the calculation of New Zealand’s assigned amount and demonstrating New Zealand’s capacity to account for its emissions and assigned amount in accordance with Article 7 paragraph 4 of the Kyoto Protocol.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2006. National Exotic Forest Description as at 1 April 2005 (June 2006).

Scott, NA, Tate, KR, Giltrap, DJ, Newsome, PF, Davis, MR, Baisden, WT, Saggar, S, Trotter, CM, Walcroft, AS, White, JD, Trustrum, NA, Stephens, PR 2001. Critical issues in quantifying land-use change effects on New Zealand’s terrestrial carbon budget: Deforestation, afforestation and reforestation. Extended Abstracts Volume 1, Sixth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Sendai, Japan, October 2001. Organizing Committee of the Sixth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Tohoku University: Japan. 559–562

Tate, KR, Scott, NA, Parshotam, A, Brown, L, Wilde, RH, Giltrap, DJ, Trustrum, NA, Gomez, B, Ross DJ 2000. A multi-scale analysis of a terrestrial carbon budget: Is New Zealand a source or sink of carbon? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 82 (1–3) (December 2000). 229–246.

Tate, KR, Barton, JP, Trustrum, NA, Baisden, WT, Saggar, S, Wilde, RH, Giltrap, DA, Scott, NA 2003a. Monitoring and modelling soil organic carbon stocks and flows in New Zealand. In: Soil organic Carbon and Agriculture: Developing Indicators for Policy Analysis. Scott-Smith. CA (Ed). Proceedings of an OECD expert Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, October 2002. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Paris. 329.

Tate, KR, Wilde, RH, Giltrap, DJ, Baisden, WT, Saggar, S, Trustrum, NA, Scott, NA 2003b. Current approaches to soil carbon monitoring in New Zealand. Proceedings of Carbon measurement and monitoring forum (CASGMS). Manhattan, Kansas, 15–17 October, 2003.

Tate, KR, Wilde, RH, Giltrap, DJ, Baisden, WT, Saggar, S, Trustrum, NA Scott, NA 2004.Soil carbon changes and uncertainties with New Zealand land-use change. Singh, B (2004). Supersoil 2004: Proceedings of the 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, University of Sydney, Australia, 5 – 9 December 2004. www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004

Thompson, S, Gruner, I, Gapare, N 2004. New Zealand Land Cover Database Version 2. Illustrated Guide to Target Classes. Report for the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Wakelin S, 2007. Carbon Inventory of NZ’s Planted Forests [Calculations revised as at February 2007], Forest Research, Contract Report, February 2007.

Specific references for Chapter 8: Waste

Ministry for the Environment 1997. National Waste Data Report. Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Ministry for the Environment 2002a. The New Zealand Waste Strategy. Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Ministry for the Environment 2002b. Solid Waste Analysis Protocol. Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Ministry for the Environment 2003. Solid Waste Analysis Protocol Baseline Results. Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Ministry for the Environment 2006b. Waste Composition and Construction Waste Data. Prepared by WasteNot Consulting for the Ministry for the Environment (unpublished): New Zealand.

SCS Wetherill Environmental 2002. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory from the Waste Sector 1990–2020. A report for the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.

Waste Management New Zealand 2005. Landfill Methane Recovery Estimate and National Greenhouse Gas Inventory from the Waste Sector. Report commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand.