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References

General references

Beets PN, Kimberley MO, Goulding CJ, Garrett LG, Oliver GR, Paul TSH. 2009. Natural Forest plot data analysis: carbon stock analyses and re-measurement strategy.

IPCC. 1995. Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Callender BA, Harris N, Kattenberg A, Maskell K (eds). Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: United Kingdom.

IPCC. 1996. Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Lim B, Treanton K, Mamaty I, Bonduki Y, Griggs DJ, Callender BA (eds). IPCC/OECD/IEA. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. United Kingdom Meteorological Office: Bracknell.

IPCC. 2000. Penman J, Kruger D, Galbally I, Hiraishi T, Nyenzi B, Emmanul S, Buendia L, Hoppaus R, Martinsen T, Meijer J, Miwa K, Tanabe K (eds). Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC. 2003. Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug T, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K, Wagner F (eds). Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC. 2006a. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 3. Industrial Processes and Product Use. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC. 2006b. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 4. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC. 2006c. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 5. Waste. IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. Published for the IPCC by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies: Japan.

IPCC. 2007. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor MB, and Miller HL (eds). Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Forth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press: United Kingdom.

Kelliher FM, Clark H, Smith MH, Lassey KR, Sedcole R. 2009. Reducing Uncertainty of the Enteric Methane Emissions Inventory. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Kimberley MO, Beets PN. 2008: Forest Carbon Predictor Version 2.1. Unpublished Scion report.

Ministry for the Environment. 2006. New Zealand’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol:Facilitating the calculation of New Zealand’s assigned amount and demonstrating New Zealand’s capacity to account for its emissions and assigned amount in accordance with Article 7 paragraph 4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009. Situation and Outlook for New Zealand Agriculture and Forestry (SONZAF). Available at www.maf.govt.nz/mafnet/rural-nz/statistics-and-forecasts/sonzaf/2009/index.htm.

Scott NA, Tate KR, Giltrap DJ, Tattersall Smith C, Wilde RH, Newsome PFJ, Davis MR. 2002. Monitoring land-use change effects on soil carbon in New Zealand: Quantifying baseline soil carbon stocks. Environmental Pollution 116: S167–S186.

Stephens PR, Watt PJ, Loubser D, Haywood A, Kimberley MO. 2007. Estimation of carbon stocks in New Zealand planted forests using airborne scanning LiDAR. Workshop on Laser Scanning. 12–14 September 2007. Finland. pp 389–394, IAPRS XXXVI, Part 3/W52.

Stephens PR, McGaughey RJ, Dougherty T, Farrier T, Geard BV, Loubser D. 2008. Quality assurance and quality control procedures of airborne scanning LiDAR for a nation-wide carbon inventory of planted forests. In: Proceedings of SilviLaser 2008: 8th international conference on LiDAR applications in forest assessment and inventory. Hill RA, Rosette J, Suárez J (eds). September 2008. Edinburgh, United Kingdom. pp 563–571.

Tate KR, Wilde RH, Giltrap DJ, Baisden WT, Saggar S, Trustrum NA, Scott NA, Barton JP. 2005. Soil organic carbon stocks and flows in New Zealand: System development, measurement and modelling. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 85(4): 481–489.

UNFCCC. 2001a. FCCC/WEB/IRI (1)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. Desk Review (20 June 2001).

UNFCCC. 2001b. FCCC/WEB/IRI (2)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. In-country Review (20 July 2001).

UNFCCC. 2001c. FCCC/WEB/IRI (3)/2000/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2000. Centralised Review (30 May 2001).

UNFCCC. 2003. FCCC/WEB/IRI (1)/2002/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventory of New Zealand submitted in the year 2002. Desk Review (13 October 2003).

UNFCCC. 2005. FCCC/KP/CMP/2005/8/Add.3. Land use, land-use change and forestry.

UNFCCC. 2006. FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9. Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, Part I: UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories (following incorporation of the provisions of decision 13/CP.9).

UNFCCC. 2007. FCCC/IRR/2007/NZL. New Zealand. Report of the review of the initial report of New Zealand. In-country Review (19–24 February 2007).

UNFCCC. 2009. FCCC/ARR/2008/NZL. Report of the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventories of New Zealand submitted in 2007 and 2008. Centralised Review.

UNFCCC. 2010 in preparation. Report of the individual review of the annual submission of New Zealand submitted in 2009. Centralised Review.

United Nations. 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Specific references for Chapter 3: Energy

Australian Bureau of Statistics and Statistics New Zealand. 2006. Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification Revision 1.0. Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra.

Beamish BB, Vance WE. 1992. Greenhouse Gas Contributions from Coal Mining in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 22(2).

Building Research Association of New Zealand. 2002. Energy Use in New Zealand Households. Building Research Association of New Zealand: New Zealand.

Electricity Technical Advisory Group and the Ministry of Economic Development. 2009. Improving Electricity Market Performance – Volume 2. Electricity Technical Advisory Group and the Ministry of Economic Development: New Zealand.

Eng G, Bywater I, and Hendtlass C. 2008. New Zealand Energy Information Handbook: Energy data conversion factors and definitions. Christchurch: New Zealand Centre for Advanced.

Ministry for the Environment. 2009. Projects to Reduce Emissions (PRE)www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/policies-initiatives/projects.

Ministry of Economic Development. 2006. New Zealand Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990–2005. Wellington: Ministry of Economic Development.

Ministry of Economic Development. 2009. New Zealand Energy Data File. Wellington: Ministry of Economic Development.

Statistics New Zealand. 2008. EnergyUse Survey: Primary industries 2008. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.

Geothermal and Energy Technical Services Ltd. 2009. Thain, I. Review of Carbon Emission Factors in Draft Stationary Engine and Industrial Process Regulations: Using Geothermal Fluid. A report by Geothermal and Energy Technical Services Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Specific references for Chapter 4: Industrial processes

Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand. 1995. The State of the Standards. New Zealand Concrete Construction October/November 1995. p 40.

CRL Energy Ltd. 2006. Hennessy W, Maxwell D. Inventory of Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Sources and Solvents for New Zealand 2004–2005. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

CRL Energy Ltd. 2009. Hennessy W. Inventory of HFC, PFC & SF6Emissions for New Zealand 2008. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

International Aluminium Institute. 2006. The Aluminium Sector Greenhouse Gas Protocol. London: International Aluminium Institute.

Ministry of Economic Development. 2006. New Zealand Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990–2005. Wellington: Ministry of Economic Development.

Ministry of Economic Development. 2009. New Zealand Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990–2008. Wellington: Ministry of Economic Development.

Roke L. 2006. Personal communication. Fisher and Paykel: New Zealand.

Ure CR. 2000. Alternative Iron-making at BHP New Zealand Steel. 58th Electric Furnace Conference and 17th Process Technology Conference. Orlando, FL, United States of America:
12–15 November 2000. pp 535–546.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 2005. The Cement CO2Protocol: CO2Accounting and Reporting Standard for the Cement Industry. Switzerland: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

Specific references for Chapter 5: Solvent and other product use

Auckland Regional Council. 1997. Auckland Air Emissions Inventory. Report by the Victorian Environmental Protection Agency. Auckland: Auckland Regional Council.

CRL Energy Ltd. 2006. Hennessy W, Maxwell D. Inventory of Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Sources and Solvents for New Zealand 2004–2005. A report by CRL Energy Ltd to the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Nelson, P. 1992. Waste Control and Pollution Prevention in the Paint Industry. Surface Coatings Australia (July).

United States EPA. 1985. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Vol. 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources (5th edn) (commonly known as AP-42). Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Specific references for Chapter 6: Agriculture

Carran RA, Dewar D, Theobald PW. 2003. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Sheep Dung. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry by the New Zealand Pastoral Agricultural Research Institute. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Carran RA, Theobold PW, Evans JP. 1995. Emissions of nitrous oxide from some grazed pasture soils. New Zealand and Australian Journal of Soil Research 33: 341–352.

Clark H. 2008a. A Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the New Zealand Dairy Sector Calculated Using Either a National or a Regional Approach. Report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Clark H. 2008b. Guidelines to Accompany Computerised Inventory. Report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Clark H, Brookes I, Walcroft A. 2003. Enteric Methane Emissions from New Zealand Ruminants 1990–2001 Calculated Using an IPCC Tier 2 Approach. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (March 2003). Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Clough TJ, Kelliher FM, Clark H, and van der Weerden TJ. 2008. Incorporation of the Nitrification Inhibitor DCD into New Zealand’s 2009 National Inventory. Report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

CSIRO. 1990. Feeding Standards for Australian Livestock: Ruminants. Victoria, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

de Klein CAM, Barton L, Sherlock RR, Li Z, Littlejohn RP. 2003. Estimating a nitrous oxide emission factor for animal urine from some New Zealand pastoral soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41: 381–399.

Grainger C, Clarke T, McGinn SM, Auldist MJ, Beauchemin KA, Hannah MC, Waghorn GC, Clark H, Eckard RJ. 2007. Methane emissions from dairy cows measured with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer and chamber techniques. Journal of Dairy Science 90:6 2755–2766.

Heatley P. 2001. Dairyingand the Environment: Managing Farm Dairy Effluent. Palmerston North: New Zealand Dairy Research Institute.

Kay RNB. 1995. Body Size, Patterns of Growth, and Efficiency of Production in Red Deer. In: Biology of Deer Production. Fennessey PF, Drew KR (eds). Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 22: 411–421.

Kelliher FM, Clough T, Newsome P, Pitcher-Campbell S, Shephard G. 2002. N2O Emissions from Organic Soils. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (June 2002). Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Kelliher FM, Ledgard SF, Clark H, Walcroft AS, Buchan M, Sherlock RR. 2003. A Revised Nitrous Oxide Emissions Inventory for New Zealand 1990–2001. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (March 2003). Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Kelliher FM; de Klein CAM; Li Z; Sherlock RR. 2005. Review of nitrous oxide emission factor (EF3) data. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Kelliher FM, de Klein CAM. 2006. Review of New Zealand’s Fertiliser Nitrous Oxide Emission Factor (EF1) Data. A Report for the Ministry for the Environment (April 2006). Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Lassey KR, Ulyatt MJ, Martin RJ, Walker CF, Shelton ID. 1997. Methane Emissions Measured Directly from Grazing Livestock in New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment 31: 2905–2914.

Laubach J, Kelliher FM. 2004. Measuring Methane Emission Rates of a Dairy Cow Herd by Two Micrometeorological Techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125: 279–303.

Ledgard S, Brier G. 2004. Estimation of the Proportion of Animal Excreta Transferred to the Farm Dairy Effluent System. Report prepared for Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ledgard SF, Webby R, Hawke M. 2003. Improved Estimation of N Excretion by Grazing Animals to Improve N2O Emission Inventories. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry..

Livestock Improvement Corporation Limited. 2009. Dairy Statistics 2006–2008. Hamilton: Livestock Improvement Corporation Limited.

McGrath RJ, Mason IG. 2002. An observational method for assessment of biogas production from an anaerobic waste stabilisation pond treating farm dairy wastewater. Presented IWA Specialised Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds (April 2002): Auckland, New Zealand.

Muller C, Sherlock RR, Williams PH. 1995. Direct field measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from urine-affected and urine-unaffected pasture in Canterbury. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Fertilizer Requirements of Grazed Pasture and Field Crops: Macro and Micronutrients. Currie LD, Loganathan P (eds). Occasional Report No. 8, ISSN 0112–9902: 7. Palmerston North: Massey University. pp 243–34.

Pinares-Patino CS, Ulyatt MJ, Waghorn GC, Lassey KR, Barry TN, Holmes CW, Johnson DE. 2003. Methane Emission by Alpaca and Sheep Fed on Lucerne Hay or Grazed on Pastures of Perennial Ryegrass/White Clover or Birdsfoot Trefoil. Journal of Agricultural Science 140:
215–226.

Payton IJ, Pearce G. 2001. Does Fire Deplete Physical and Biological Resources of Tall-tussock (Chionochloa) Grasslands? The Latest Attempt at Some Answers. Bushfire 2001. Australasian Bushfire Conference, 3–6 July 2001, Christchurch, New Zealand. pp 243–249.

Saggar S, Clark H, Hedley C, Tate K, Carran A, Cosgrove G. 2003. Methane Emissions from Animal Dung and Waste Management Systems, and its Contribution to National Budget. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0301/02. Prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Sherlock RR, Jewell P, Clough T. 2009. Review of New Zealand Specific FracGASMand FracGASFEmissions Factors. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Sherlock RR, de Klein C, Li Z. 2003. Determination of N2O and CH4Emission Factors From Animal Excreta, Following a Summer Application in Three Regions of New Zealand. A final report of an NzOnet study prepared for Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Sherlock RR, Johnston G, Kelliher F, Newsome P, Walcroft A, de Klein CAM, Ledgard S. 2001. A Desktop Study of Regional Variations in Nitrous Oxide Emissions. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Statistics New Zealand. 2008. Agriculture Statistics table builder and Infoshare database. Available at: www.stats.govt.nz/methods_and_services/access-data/TableBuilder.aspx and www.stats.govt.nz/infoshare.

Thomas SM, Ledgard SF, Francis GS. 2005. Improving Estimates of Nitrate Leaching for Quantifying New Zealand’s Indirect Nitrous Oxide Emissions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 73: 213–226.

Thomas SM, Fraser T, Curtin D, Brown H, Lawrence E. 2008. Review of Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors and Activity Data for Crops. Report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ulyatt MJ, Baker SK, McCrabb GJ, Lassey KR. 1999. Accuracy of the SF6 Tracer Technology and Alternatives for Field Measurements. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50: 1329–1334.

Waghorn G, Molano G, Cavanagh A. 2003. An Estimate of Whole Herd Methane Production from Cows at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm in October 2003. Final report prepared for Landcare Research NZ Ltd, Palmerston North: AgResearch.

Waghorn G, Molano G, Lassey K. 2002. Estimates of Whole Herd Methane Production from Cows at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm in January and March 2002. A preliminary report to Landcare Research NZ Ltd (unpublished). Lincoln, Christchurch: Landcare Research NZ Ltd.

Wheeler DM, Ledgard SF, De Klein CAM, Monaghan PL, Carey PL, McDowell RW, Johns KL. 2003. OVERSEER® Nutrient budgets – moving towards on-farm resource accounting. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 2003. Palmerston North: NZ Grassland Association Inc.

Specific references for Chapter 7: Land use, land-use change and forestry

Baisden WT, Beets PN, Davis M, Wilde RH, Arnold G, Trotter CM. 2006a. Changes in New Zealand’s Soil Carbon Stocks Following Afforestation of Pastures. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0506/105. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Baisden WT, Wilde RH, Arnold G, Trotter C.M. 2006b. Operating the New Zealand Soil Carbon Monitoring System. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0506/107. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Beets PN, Robertson K, Ford-Robertson JB, Gordon J, Maclaren JP. 1999. Description and Validation of C_Change: A Model for Simulating Carbon Content in Managed Pinus Radiata Stands. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 29(3): 409–427.

Beets PN, Kimberley MO, McKinley RB. 2007a. Predicting Wood Density of Pinus radiata Annual Growth Increments. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 37: 241–266.

Beets PN, Pearce SH, Oliver GR, Clinton P. 2007b. Root/shoot Ratios for Deriving the Below Ground Biomass of Pinus radiata Stands. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 37: 267–288.

Beets PN, Oliver GR, Kimberley MO, Hodgkiss PD, Cown DJ. 2008a. Wood Density of Exotic and Native Species in New Zealand’s Planted and Natural Forests. Contract report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Contract No. 11407. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Beets, PN, Oliver, GR, Kimberley, MO, Pearce, SH. 2008b. Allometric Functions for Estimating Above Ground Carbon in Native Forest Trees, Shrubs and Tree Ferns. Contract report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Contract No. 10048. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Beets PN, Brandon AM, Fraser BV, Goulding CJ, Lane P, Stephens PR. 2010. National Forest Inventory Country Report: New Zealand. In E Tomppo, T Gschwantner, M Lawrence and RE McRoberts (eds) National Forest Inventories: Pathways for Common Reporting. Managing Forest Ecosystems Series. Springer.

Beets PN, Kimberley MO, Paul TSH. In press (a). Planted Forest Carbon Monitoring System – Forest Carbon Model Validation Study for Pinus radiata.New Zealand Journal of Forest Research.

Beets PN, Reutebuch S, McGaughey RJ, Kimberley MO, Oliver GR, Pearce SH. In press (b). Use of LiDAR to estimate biomass carbon, leaf area index, and carbon sequestration in radiata pine. Submitted to Remote Sensing of Environment. October 2009.

Brack C. 2009. 2009: Planted Forest Inventory Design: Post-1989 exotic. Contract Report: 12479. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Coomes DA, Allen RB, Scott NA, Goulding CJ, Beets PN. 2002. Designing Systems to Monitor Carbon Stocks in Forests and Shrublands. Forest Ecology and Management 164: 89–108.

Corona P, Fattorini L. 2008: Area-based LiDAR-assisted Estimation of Forest Standing Volume. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 2911–2916.

Doherty JJ, Anderson SAJ, Pearce HG. 2008. An Analysis of Wildfire Records in New Zealand: 1991–2007. Scion client report no 12796. Christchurch: Scion.

Dougherty T, Gapare N, Stephens PR. 2009. Guide to Mapping Woody Land Use Classes Using Satellite Imagery. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment Internal Document.

Dymond JR, Shepherd JD, Qi J. 2001. A Simple Physical Model of Vegetation Reflectance for Standardising Optical Satellite Imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment. 37: 230–239.

Dymond JR, Shepherd JD. 2004. The spatial distribution of indigenous forest and its composition in the Wellington region, New Zealand, from ETM+ satellite imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 90: 116–125.

Dymond JR, Shepherd JD, Arnold GC, Trotter CM. 2008. Estimating area of forest change by random sampling of change strata mapped using satellite imagery. Forest Science 54(5): 475–480.

Eyles, GO. 1977. NZLRI worksheets and their applications to rural planning. Town Planning Quarterly 47: 38–44.

Fraser S, Wilde H, Payton I, Scott J. 2009. Historic Soils Dataset – Land Use Reclassification. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0809/131. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Garcia O. 1984. Nagumo, H et al (eds). FOLPI: a forestry-oriented linear programming interpreter. IUFRO symposium on Forest Management, Planning and Managerial Economics. Japan: University of Tokyo. pp 293–305.

Garrett G, Oliver GO, Pearce SH, Kimberley MO. 2009. Decomposition of woody roots and branches in managed Pinus radiata forests – time series approach. Scion contract report number 45653 to Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

GNS Science. 2009. LUM 2008 AQC Regional Reports. Contract deliverables prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Goulding CJ, Beets PN, Duigan A, Davis M, Allen RB, Payton IJ, Tate KR, Wilde H. 2001. Development of a carbon monitoring system for the indigenous forest, shrubland and soils of New Zealand. Contract report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Hall GMJ, Wiser SK, Allen RB, Beets PN, Goulding CJ. 2001. Strategies to estimate national forest carbon stocks from inventory data: The 1990 New Zealand baseline. Global Change Biology 7: 389–403.

Hollinger DY, Maclaren JP, Beets PN, Turland J. 1993. Carbon sequestration by New Zealand’s plantation forests. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 23: (2).

Jaakko Poyry Consulting. 2003. Small Forest Owners Yield Table Evaluation. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Kimberley MO, West GG, Dean MG, Knowles LR. 2005. The 300 Index – a volume productivity index for radiata pine. New Zealand Journal of Forestry 50, pp 13–18.

Kimberley MO, Dean MG. 2005. A validation of the 300 index growth model. Plantation Management Cooperative Report No. 98.

Kimberley MO, Beets PN, Wakelin SJ. 2009. Revised regression models for estimating forest carbon stocks in New Zealand Post-1989 forests using LiDAR. Scion contract report number 45478 to Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Kirschbaum M, Trotter C, Wakelin S, Baisden T, Curtin D, Dymond J, Ghani A, Jones HS, Deurer M, Arnold G, Beets PN, Davis MR, Hedley C, Peltzer D, Ross C, Schipper L, Sutherland A, Wang H, Beare M, Clothier B, Mason N, Ward M. 2009. Carbon Stocks and Changes in New Zealand's Soils and Forests, and Implications of Post-2012 Accounting Options for Land-Based Emissions Offsets and Mitigation Opportunities. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0708/174, 1-457. Lincoln: Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd.

Kelliher FM, de Klein, CAM. 2006. Review of New Zealand’s Fertiliser Nitrous Oxide Emission Factor (EF1) Data. A Report for the Ministry for the Environment (April 2006). Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

MacLaren JP, Knowles RL. 2005. Version 2 Calculators. Upgrading the business of farm forestry. New Zealand Tree Grower May 2005:24.

McNeill SJ, Forester G, Giltrap D. 2009. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Data for the Soils CMS Model. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0910/003. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

McGaughey RJ, Carson WW, Reutebuch SE, Andersen HE. 2004. Direct measurement of individual tree characteristics from LiDAR data. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Annual ASPRS Conference, 23–28 May 2004; Denver, Colorado: Bethesda, MD. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Unpaginated CD-ROM.

McGlone MS. 2009. Postglacial history of New Zealand wetlands and implications for their conservation. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 33(1):1–23.

Manley B. 2004. Review of NEFD Yield Table Structure. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Manley B. 2009. 2008 Deforestation Intentions Survey. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ministry for the Environment. 2006. New Zealand’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol:Facilitating the calculation of New Zealand’s assigned amount and demonstrating New Zealand’s capacity to account for its emissions and assigned amount in accordance with Article 7 paragraph 4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2008a. National Exotic Forest Description as at 1 April 2007. Edition 24. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2008b. Permanent Forest Sink Initiative – see www.maf.govt.nz/forestry/pfsi.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009a. National Exotic Forest Description as at 1 April 2008. Edition 25. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009b. Afforestation Grants Scheme. Retrieved 16 December 2009 from www.maf.govt.nz/climatechange/forestry/initiatives/ags.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009c. Forestry Production and Trade for the June 2009 Quarter. Forestry Statistical Release 04/09.

Moore JR, Goulding CJ. 2005. Sampling Methods and Associated Levels of Precision for a National Carbon Inventory in Planted Forests. Contract report prepared for Ministry for the Environment, June 2005. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Palmer DJ, Hock BK, Kimberley MO, Watt MS, Lowe DJ, Payn TW. In press. A comparison of spatial prediction techniques for developing Pinus radiata productivity surfaces across New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management.

Parker RC, Evans DL. 2004. An application of LIDAR in a Double-Sample Forest Inventory. Western Journal of Applied Forestry April, 19(2): 95–101.

Paul TSH, Andersen C, Kimberley MO, Goulding CJ. 2009. Revised Calculations of Carbon Stocks and Sequestration in New Zealand Post-1989 Forest. Scion contract report 45491 to the Ministry for the Environment, October 2009. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Paul TSH, Kimberley MO. 2009. Carbon Stock Estimates for Minor Plantation Species in New Zealand Post-1989 Forest. Scion Contract report 45611 to the Ministry for the Environment, November 2009. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Payton IJ, Moore JR, Burrows, LE, Goulding CJ, Beets PN, Dean MG. 2008. New Zealand carbon monitoring system: planted forest data collection manual. Contract report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry: New Zealand.

Payton IJ, Moss KA. 2001. Sequester: A National Carbon Monitoring System for New Zealand’s Indigenous Forest and Shrublands and Soils – Part II Forest and Shrubland data collection. Report to the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Payton IJ, Newell CL, Beets PN. 2004. New Zealand Carbon Monitoring System indigenous forest and shrubland data collection manual. Christchurch: The Caxton Press.

PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2008. LUCAS Data Quality Framework. Report prepared for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Shepherd JD, Dymond J.R. 2003. Correcting satellite imagery for the variance of reflectance and illumination with topography. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24: 3503–3514.

Shepherd JD, Newsome P. 2009a. Establishing New Zealand’s Kyoto Land Use and Land-use Change and Forestry 1990 Map. Contract report prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Shepherd JD, Newsome P. 2009b. Establishing New Zealand’s Kyoto Land Use and Land-use Change and Forestry 2008 Map. Contract report prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Tate KR, Giltrap DJ, Claydon JJ, Newsome PF, Atkinson IAE, Taylor MD, Lee R. 1997. Organic carbon stocks in New Zealand’s terrestrial ecosystems. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 27(3): 315–335.

Tate KR, Scott NA, Newsome PF, Betts H, Davis MR, Beets PN, Ford-Robertson JB, Giltrap DJ. 1999. Design and testing of national soil system. Palmerston North: Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd and New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. Contribution of soil carbon to New Zealand’s CO2 emissions.

Tate KR, Barton JP, Trustrum NA, Baisden WT, Saggar S, Wilde RH, Giltrap DJ, and Scott NA. 2002. Monitoring and modelling soil organic carbon stocks and flows: a New Zealand perspective, presented at: OECD Expert Meeting on Soil Organic Carbon Indicators for Agricultural Land, Ottawa, Canada, 15–18 October 2002. p 17.

Tate KR, Scott NA, Saggar S, Giltrap DJ, Baisden WT, Newsome PF, Trotter CM, Wilde RH. 2003a. Land-use change alters New Zealand’s terrestrial carbon budget: Uncertainties associated with estimates of soil carbon change between 1990–2000. Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55(2): 364–377.

Tate KR, Barton JP, Trustrum NA, Baisden WT, Saggar S, Wilde RH, Giltrap DJ, and Scott NA. 2003b. Monitoring and modelling soil organic carbon stocks and flows in New Zealand. In CA Scott-Smith (ed.) Soil Organic Carbon and Agriculture: Developing Indicators for Policy Analysis. Proceedings of an OECD Expert Meeting, Ottawa, ON. October 2002. Paris, France: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. pp 253–268.

Tate, KR, Wilde, RH, Giltrap, DJ, Baisden, WT, Saggar, S, Trustrum, NA, Scott, NA. 2003c. Current Approaches to Soil Carbon Monitoring in New Zealand. In: Proceedings of Carbon Measurement and Monitoring Forum (CASGMS). Manhattan: Kansas. 15–17 October 2003.

Tate KR, Wilde RH, Giltrap DJ, Baisden WT, Saggar S, Trustrum NA, Scott, NA. 2004. Soil carbon changes and uncertainties with New Zealand land-use change. In: SuperSoil 2004: Proceedings of the 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference. Sydney: University of Sydney, Australia. 5–9 December 2004. www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004

Thompson S, Gruner I, Gapare N. 2004. New Zealand Land Cover Database Version 2. Illustrated Guide to Target Classes. Report for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Trotter C, MacKay A. 2005. Potential Forest Land. Landcare Research Contract Report: 04/05-0410-L. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

UNECE/FAO. 2000. Temperate and Boreal Forest Resources Assessment (TBFRA 2000). Main report. UNECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources. United Nations, New York and Geneva.

Wakelin SJ. 2004. Review of Shrubland Clearance Assumptions in the National Carbon Inventory. Contract report prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Wakelin SJ. 2006. Review of LULUCF Biomass Burning Assumptions in New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Report for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Wakelin SJ. 2008. Carbon Inventory of New Zealand’s Planted Forests – Calculations revised in October 2008 for New Zealand’s 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Wakelin SJ, Clifford VR, Anderson SAJ, Pearce HG. 2009. Review of LULUCF Non-Carbon Emissions in New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Contract report prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Wilde RH (ed.). 2003. Manual for National Soils Database. Palmerston North: Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd.. Retrieved from www.landcareresearch.co.nz/databases/nsd_manual_v1.pdf (5 April 2010).

Wilde H, Davis M, Tate K, Giltrap D. 2004. Testing the representativeness of soil carbon data held in databases underpinning the New Zealand Soil Carbon Monitoring System. SuperSoil 2004: 3rd Australian New Zealand Soils Conference, 5–9 December 2004, University of Sydney, Australia.

Woollons, R. 2009. Analysis of the 2007–2008 planted forest carbon monitoring system inventory data of Post-1989 forests by Thomas Paul, Carolyn Andersen, Mark Kimberley, Chris Goulding Report 11448 prepared for Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Specific references for Chapter 8: Waste

Beca. 2007. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory from Wastewater Treatment and Discharge. Unpublished.

Ministry for the Environment. 1997. National Waste Data Report. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry for the Environment. 2002a. The New Zealand Waste Strategy. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry for the Environment. 2002b. Solid Waste Analysis Protocol. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry for the Environment. 2007. The 2006/07 National Landfill Census (www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/waste/2006-07-national-landfill-census-oct07/index.html).

SCS Wetherill Environmental. 2002. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory from the Waste Sector
1990–2020
. A report for the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

SKM. 2007. Greenhouse Gases from the Waste Incineration Sector. Unpublished.

Waste Management New Zealand. 2005. Landfill Methane Recovery Estimate and National Greenhouse Gas Inventory from the Waste Sector. Report commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Waste Not Consulting. 2006. Waste Composition and Construction Waste Data. Unpublished.

Specific references for Chapter 11: KP-LULUCF

Manley B. 2009. 2008 Deforestation Intentions Survey. Contract report prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2002. New Zealand Country Report. Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests 2003. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Technical Paper No: 2002/21, December.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2008. National Exotic Forest Description as at 1 April 2007. Edition 24. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009a. National Exotic Forest Description as at 1 April 2008. Edition 25. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009b. Afforestation Grants Scheme. Retrieved from www.maf.govt.nz/climatechange/forestry/initiatives/ags (16 December 2009).

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009d. A guide to forestry in the emissions trading scheme. Retrieved from www.maf.govt.nz/sustainable-forestry/ets/guide/page-02.htm (5 April 2010).

Wakelin SJ. 2008. Carbon Inventory of New Zealand’s Planted Forests – Calculations Revised in October 2008 for New Zealand’s 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Report for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

General notes

Units

Standard metric prefixes used in this inventory are:

kilo (k) = 103 (thousand)

mega (M) = 106 (million)

giga (G) = 109

tera (T) = 1012

peta (P) = 1015

Emissions are generally expressed in gigagrams (Gg) in the inventory tables:

1 gigagram (Gg) = 1,000 tonnes = 1 kilotonne (kt)

1 megatonne (Mt) = 1,000,000 tonnes = 1,000 Gg

Gases

CO2 carbon dioxide

CH4 methane

N2O nitrous oxide

PFCs perfluorocarbons

HFCs hydrofluorocarbons

SF6 sulphur hexafluoride

CO carbon monoxide

NMVOCs non-methane volatile organic compounds

NOx oxides of nitrogen

SO2 sulphur dioxide

Global warming potentials

The global warming potential is an index, representing the combined effect of the differing times greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere, and their relative effectiveness in absorbing thermal infrared radiation (IPCC, 2007).

The Climate Change Convention reporting requirements (UNFCCC, 2006) stipulate that the 100-year global warming potentials contained in the IPCC Second Assessment Report (IPCC, 1995) are used in national inventories. The indirect effects on global warming of a number of gases (CO, NOx, SO2 and NMVOCs) cannot currently be quantified, and, consequently, these gases do not have global warming potentials. In accordance with the Climate Change Convention reporting guidelines (UNFCCC, 2006), indirect greenhouse gases that do not have global warming potentials are reported in the inventory but are not included in the inventory emissions total.

Common global warming potentials (100-year time period)

(refer to http://unfccc.int/ghg_emissions_data/items/3825.php )

CO2 = 1 HFC-32 = 650

CH4 = 21 HFC-125 = 2,800

N2O = 310 HFC-134a = 1,300

CF4 = 6,500 HFC-143a = 3,800

C2F6 = 9,200 HFC-227ea = 2,900

SF6 = 23,900

Conversion factors

From element basis to molecular mass From molecular mass to element basis

C → CO2: C × 44/12 (3.67) CO2 → C: CO2 × 12/44 (0.27)

C → CH4: C × 16/12 (1.33) CH4 → C: CO2 × 12/16 (0.75)

N → N2O: N × 44/28 (1.57) N2O → N: N2O × 28/44 (0.64)

Notation keys

In the common reporting format tables, the following standard notation keys are used.

NO Not occurring: when the activity or process does not occur in New Zealand.

NA Not applicable: when the activity occurs in New Zealand but the nature of the process does not result in emissions or removals.

NE Not estimated: where it is known that the activity occurs in New Zealand but there is no data or methodology available to derive an estimate of emissions. This can also apply to negligible emissions.

IE Included elsewhere: where emissions or removals are estimated but included elsewhere in the inventory. Table 9 of the common reporting format tables details the source category where these emissions or removals are reported.

C Confidential: where reporting of emissions or removals at a disaggregated level could lead to the disclosure of confidential information.