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Chapter 2: Trends in greenhouse gas emissions

2.1 Emission trends for aggregated greenhouse gas emissions

Total (gross) emissions

Total emissions include those from the energy, industrial processes, solvent and other product use, and waste sectors, but do not include emissions and removals from the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector. Reporting total emissions excluding the LULUCF sector is consistent with the reporting requirements of the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC, 2006).

In 1990, New Zealand’s total greenhouse gas emissions were 60,773.6 Gg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e). In 2008, total greenhouse gas emissions had increased by 13,885.1 Gg CO2-e (22.8 per cent) to 74,658.7 Gg CO2-e (Figure 2.1.1). Between 1990 and 2008, the average annual growth in total emissions was 1.3 per cent per year.

New Zealand’s total emissions trend is different from many other countries. Instead of a predictable increase or decline in emissions, the trend for New Zealand consists of year-to-year fluctuations (Figure 2.1.1). These fluctuations are due to two main factors. The first is the change in proportion of non-renewable energy used in electricity and heat production affecting CO2 emissions. The second factor is the effect of droughts on agriculture productivity and livestock numbers affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions.

Net emissions

Net emissions include those from the energy, industrial processes, solvent and other product use, and waste sectors and emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector. In 1990, New Zealand’s net greenhouse gas emissions were 29,707.3 Gg CO2-e. In 2008, net greenhouse gas emissions had increased by 18,774.6 Gg CO2-e (63.2 per cent) to 48,482.0 Gg CO2-e (Figure 2.1.1). The increase in net emissions between 1990 and 2008 is larger than for total emissions because the net removals from LULUCF were greater in 1990 than in 2008.

Figure 2.1.1 New Zealand’s total and net emissions (under the Climate Change Convention) from 1990 to 2008


Figure 2.1.1 New Zealand’s total and net emissions (under the Climate Change Convention) from 1990 to 2008

  Total emissions
Gg CO2 equivalent
Net emissions
Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 60,773.6 29,707.3
1991 61,063.1 29,528.5
1992 62,299.8 31,754.9
1993 61,720.5 31,067.9
1994 62,502.4 32,610.6
1995 62,547.4 33,779.3
1996 63,698.9 34,990.1
1997 66,388.5 36,516.9
1998 64,321.2 32,528.1
1999 66,103.0 33,653.0
2000 69,591.1 38,309.9
2001 72,234.5 42,027.7
2002 72,706.9 45,115.9
2003 75,492.6 47,069.5
2004 74,778.6 46,879.0
2005 76,738.2 52,945.6
2006 76,997.1 57,282.9
2007 74,718.8 57,898.1
2008 74,658.7 48,482.0

Reporting under the Kyoto Protocol

New Zealand’s initial assigned amount under the Kyoto Protocol is recorded as 309,564,733 metric tonnes CO2 equivalent. The initial assigned amount is five times the total emissions reported in the 1990 inventory submitted as part of New Zealand’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol (Ministry for the Environment, 2006). The initial assigned amount does not change during the first commitment period (2008–2012) of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast, the time series of emissions and removals reported in each inventory submission are subject to continuous improvement. Consequently, the total emissions in 1990 as reported in this submission are different (1.8 per cent) from the 1990 level of 61,893.0 Gg CO2-e used in the initial assigned amount calculation.

In 2008, net removals from land subject to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation were –14,416.8 3 Gg CO2-e. Removals from afforestation and reforestation were –17,327.4 Gg CO2-e. Deforestation emissions were 2,910.6 Gg CO2-e.

2.2 Emission trends by gas

Inventory reporting under the Climate Change Convention covers six direct greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Table 2.2.1 provides the change in each gas from 1990 to 2008. Figure 2.2.1 shows New Zealand’s 2008 total emissions profile by gas. The change in the six gases between 1990 and 2008 is shown in Figure 2.2.2. The change in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions since 1990 over the period 1990–2008 is shown in Figure 2.2.3.

In accordance with the Climate Change Convention reporting guidelines (UNFCCC, 2006), indirect greenhouse gases are included in inventory reporting but are not included in the total emissions. These indirect gases include carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide contributed the largest share to total emissions in 2008 at 36,063.2 Gg CO2 (48.3 per cent). Carbon dioxide emissions increased 11,169.9 Gg CO2 (44.9 per cent) from the 1990 level of 24,893.3 Gg CO2. The growth in CO2 emissions from 1990 and 2008 represented the increased emissions from the energy and industrial processes sectors, particularly in road transport and electricity and heat production.

Between 2007 and 2008, CO2 emissions increased 829.7 Gg CO2 (2.4 per cent). This increase is primarily due to an increase in emissions from public electricity and heat production due to low hydro inflows for 2008, that is, 2008 was a low rainfall year. Low hydro inflows increase thermal electricity generation. Public electricity and heat production emissions also rose in 2008 due to increased use of coal in electricity generation.

Removals of CO2 by forest sinks are reported in the LULUCF sector under the Climate Change Convention (chapter 7). Kyoto Protocol Article 3.3 activities (afforestation, reforestation and deforestation) are reported in the supplementary Kyoto Protocol tables (chapter 11).

Methane

Methane contributed 25,816.2 Gg CO2-e (34.6 per cent) to total emissions in 2008. Methane emissions have increased by 359.8 Gg CO2-e (1.4 per cent) from the 1990 level of 25,456.4 Gg CO2-e. Between 2007 and 2008, CH4 emissions decreased 618.6 Gg CO2-e (2.3 per cent). This was largely due to a decrease in the population of sheep, deer and non-dairy cattle as a result of the drought that affected most of New Zealand throughout 2008 (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2009).

Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide contributed 11,913.4 Gg CO2-e (16.0 per cent) to total emissions in 2008. Emissions increased by 2,134.6 Gg CO2-e (21.8 per cent) from the 1990 level of 9,778.9 Gg CO2-e. The growth in N2O is from the increase in emissions from animal excreta and an increase in the use of nitrogenous fertilisers in the agriculture sector. There has been a five-fold increase in the amount of synthetic fertiliser nitrogen applied to soils from 1990 to 2008.

Between 2007 and 2008, emissions of nitrous oxide decreased 162.0 Gg CO2-e (1.3 per cent). This decrease can also be attributed to the widespread drought through 2008 affecting livestock numbers. Nitrous oxide emissions from the agriculture sector decreased 156.3 Gg CO2-e (1.3 per cent).

Hydrofluorocarbons, PFCs and SF6

Hydrofluorocarbons, PFCs and SF6 contributed the remaining 865.9 Gg CO2-e (1.2 per cent) to total emissions in 2008.

In 1990, no HFCs were used in New Zealand and therefore no percentage is shown in Table 2.2.1 and Figure 2.2.1. In 2008, 812.5 Gg CO2-e of HFC emissions were produced. Hydrofluorocarbon emissions have increased because of their use as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons phased out under the Montreal Protocol.

Emissions of PFCs have decreased 591.1Gg CO2-e (93.8 per cent) from the 629.9 Gg CO2-e in 1990, to 38.8 Gg CO2-e in 2008. This decrease is due to improvements in the aluminium smelting process.

Emissions of SF6 have decreased 0.7 Gg CO2-e (4.3 per cent), from the 1990 level of 15.2 Gg CO2-e to the 2008 level of 14.5 Gg CO2-e.

Table 2.2.1 New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions by gas in 1990 and 2008
Direct greenhouse gas emissions Gg CO2-equivalent Change from 1990 (Gg CO2-equivalent) Change from 1990 (%)
  1990 2008    
CO2 24,893.3 36,063.2 +11,169.9 +44.9
CH4 25,456.4 25,816.2 +359.8 +1.4
N2O 9,778.9 11,913.4 +2,134.6 +21.8
HFCs NO 812.5 +812.5 NA
PFCs 629.9 38.8 –591.0 –93.8
SF6 15.2 14.5 –0.7 –4.3
Total 60,773.6 74,658.7 +13,885.1 +22.8

Notes: Carbon dioxide, CH4 and N2O values exclude emissions and removals from LULUCF. The per cent change for hydrofluorocarbons is not applicable (NA) as production of hydrofluorocarbons in 1990 was not occurring (NO). Although there may be rounding errors in this table, the figures are consistent with estimates reported in the common reporting format tables.

Figure 2.2.1 New Zealand’s total emissions by gas in 2008


Figure 2.2.1 New Zealand’s total emissions by gas in 2008

Gas Gg CO2 equivalent
CO2 36,063.2
CH4 25,816.2
N2O 11,913.4
HFCs, PFCs & SF6 865.9

Note: Carbon dioxide, CH4 and N2O values exclude emissions and removals from LULUCF.

Figure 2.2.2 Change in New Zealand’s emissions by gas from 1990 to 2008


Figure 2.2.2 Change in New Zealand’s emissions by gas from 1990 to 2008

  1990 2008
CO2 24893.3 36063.2
CH4 25456.4 25816.2
N2O 9778.9 11913.4
HFCs 0.0 812.5
PFCs 629.9 38.8
SF6 15.2 14.5

Notes: The per cent change for hydrofluorocarbons is not applicable (NA) as there was no production of hydrofluorocarbons in 1990. Carbon dioxide, CH4 and N2O values exclude emissions and removals from LULUCF.

Figure 2.2.3 Change from 1990 in New Zealand’s emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from 1990 to 2008


Figure 2.2.3 Change from 1990 in New Zealand’s emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from 1990 to 2008

  CO2
Gg CO2 equivalent
CH4
Gg CO2 equivalent
N2O
Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 0.0 0.0 0.0
1991 210.3 20.0 63.4
1992 2,328.0 -527.2 -44.0
1993 1,611.1 -389.5 170.3
1994 1,321.2 265.2 548.5
1995 980.5 328.6 812.6
1996 1,625.5 565.3 910.7
1997 3,743.4 1,110.6 1,087.6
1998 2,255.1 511.6 974.2
1999 3,739.5 690.0 1,150.0
2000 6,046.0 1,446.9 1,589.7
2001 8,019.2 1,619.6 2,018.1
2002 8,241.7 1,409.0 2,326.6
2003 10,223.5 1,701.2 2,641.3
2004 9,741.0 1,580.7 2,709.2
2005 11,212.7 1,761.8 2,814.7
2006 11,453.4 1,928.7 2,702.8
2007 10,340.2 978.5 2,296.5
2008 11,169.9 359.8 2,134.6

Note: Carbon dioxide, CH4 and N2O values exclude emissions and removals from LULUCF.

2.3 Emission trends by source

Energy (chapter 3)

The energy sector was the source of 33,838.8 Gg CO2-e (45.3 per cent) of total emissions in 2008. In 2008, energy emissions had increased by 10,796.1 Gg CO2-e (46.9 per cent) from the 1990 level of 23,042.7 Gg CO2-e. This growth in emissions is primarily from the electricity generation, heat production and transport categories.

New Zealand’s electricity generation is dominated by hydroelectric generation. For the 2008 calendar year, hydro generation provided 52 per cent of New Zealand’s electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions from the public electricity and heat production subcategory show large inter-annual fluctuations between 1990–2008. These fluctuations can also be seen over the time series for New Zealand’s total emissions. The fluctuations are caused by switching between thermal and hydro generation (Figure 3.3.2). Drought years increase the reliance on thermal electricity generation.

Between 2007 and 2008, emissions from the energy sector increased by 1,185.2 Gg CO2‑e (3.6 per cent). This is primarily due to a 987.3 Gg CO2‑e (14.8 per cent) increase in emissions from public electricity and heat production due to low hydro inflows for 2008. Public electricity and heat production emissions also rose in 2008 due to the increased use of coal in electricity generation.

An increase of 368.2 Gg CO2‑e (6.9 per cent) in the manufacturing industries and construction category between 2007 and 2008, also contributed to the increase in energy emissions. However, these increases were in part offset by a 623.7 Gg CO2‑e (4.2 per cent) decrease in the transport category due to the high petrol and diesel prices in 2008, and the beginning of the global recession.

Industrial processes (chapter 4)

The industrial processes sector accounted for 4,292.0 Gg CO2-e (5.7 per cent) of total emissions in 2008. Emissions from the industrial processes sector increased 906.2 Gg CO2-e (26.8 per cent) from the 1990 level of 3,385.8 Gg CO2-e. This increase was mainly caused by growth in emissions from the consumption of hydrofluorocarbons.

Between 2007 and 2008, emissions from the industrial processes sector decreased by 344.6 Gg CO2-e (7.4 per cent). The largest decrease of 183.3 Gg CO2-e (8.1 per cent) was due to a reduction in emissions from steel and aluminium production.

Between 2007 and 2008, emissions from the consumption of halocarbons and SF6 category decreased by 105.3 Gg CO2-e (11.3 per cent.) This was caused by reduced sales of new refrigerant (including halocarbons imported in bulk and in equipment, excluding exports). There was also a reduction in the amount of HFC-134a sold to the mobile air conditioning industry.

Solvent and other product use (chapter 5)

In 2008, the solvent and other product use sector was responsible for 31.0 Gg CO2-e (0.04 per cent) of total emissions.

Agriculture (chapter 6)

The agriculture sector was the largest source of emissions in 2008, contributing 34,826.3 Gg CO2-e (46.6 per cent) of total emissions (Table 2.3.1 and Figure 2.3.1). Consequently, New Zealand has a unique emissions profile. In other developed countries, agricultural emissions are typically less than 10 per cent of total emissions. In 2008, New Zealand’s agricultural emissions increased by 2,960.9 Gg CO2-e (9.3 per cent) from the 1990 level of 31,865.4 Gg CO2-e (Figure 2.3.2). The change in emissions since 1990 is shown in Figure 2.3.3. The agriculture sector contributed 11,434.1 Gg CO2-e (96.0 per cent) of New Zealand’s total N2O emissions and 23,392.2 Gg CO2-e (90.6 per cent) of total CH4 emissions in 2008.

Between 2007 and 2008, emissions from the agriculture sector decreased 737.1 Gg CO2-e (2.1 per cent) (Figure 2.3.3). This was largely due to a decrease in the population of sheep (4,372,613 head or 11.4 per cent), deer (172,699 head or 12.4 per cent) and non-dairy cattle (256,745 head or 5.8 per cent). The drought that affected most of New Zealand throughout 2008 was the main cause for these decreases in animal numbers (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2009). This was the second year in a row drought affected some regions of New Zealand.

LULUCF (chapter 7)

Net removals from the LULUCF sector under the Climate Change Convention were estimated to be –26,176.8 Gg CO2-e in 2008, and have decreased by 4,889.5 Gg CO2-e (15.7 per cent) from the 1990 level of –31,066.3 Gg CO2-e. This decrease is largely due to the harvesting and replanting of plantation forests in the five years prior to 2008 as this lowered the average age and therefore the CO2 absorption capacity of planted forests in 2008. The decrease is also due to an increase in emissions from deforestation.

Waste (chapter 8)

The waste sector accounted for 1,670.7 Gg CO2-e (2.2 per cent) of total emissions in 2008. Emissions from the waste sector had decreased by 767.5 Gg CO2-e (31.5 per cent) from the 1990 level of 2,438.2 Gg CO2-e. This decrease was largely due to initiatives to improve solid waste management practices.

Table 2.3.1 New Zealand’s emissions by sector in 1990 and 2008
Sector Gg CO2-equivalent Change from 1990 (Gg CO2-equivalent) Change from 1990 (%)
1990 2008    
Energy 23,042.7 33,838.8 +10,796.1 +46.9
Industrial processes 3,385.8 4,292.0 +906.2 +26.8
Solvent and other product use 41.5 31.0 −10.5 −25.4
Agriculture 31,865.4 34,826.3 +2,960.9 +9.3
Waste 2,438.2 1,670.7 −767.5 −31.5
Total (excluding LULUCF) 60,773.6 74,658.7 +13,885.1 +22.8
LULUCF −31,066.3 −26,176.8 +4,889.5 +15.7
Net Total (including LULUCF) 29,707.3 48,482.0 +18,774.6 +63.2

Notes: LULUCF includes CO2 removals and emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Net removals from the LULUCF sector are as reported under the Climate Change Convention (chapter 7). Although there may be rounding errors in this table, the figures are consistent with estimates reported in the common reporting format tables.

Figure 2.3.1 New Zealand’s emissions by sector in 2008


Figure 2.3.1 New Zealand’s emissions by sector in 2008

Sector Gg CO2 equivalent
Energy 33,838.8
Industrial processes 4,292.0
Solvent and other product use 31.0
Waste 1,670.7
Agriculture 34,826.3
Land-use change & forestry -26,176.8

Notes: Emissions from the solvent and other product use sector are not represented in this figure. Net removals from the LULUCF sector are as reported under the Climate Change Convention (chapter 7). Although there may be rounding errors, the figures are consistent with estimates reported in the common reporting format tables.

Figure 2.3.2 Change in New Zealand’s emissions by sector from 1990 to 2008


Figure 2.3.2 Change in New Zealand’s emissions by sector from 1990 to 2008

  1990
Gg CO2 equivalent
2008
Gg CO2 equivalent
Energy 23,042.7 33,838.8
Industrial processes 3,385.8 4,292.0
Solvent and other product use 41.5 31.0
Waste 2,438.2 1,670.7
Agriculture 31,865.4 34,826.3

Figure 2.3.3 Change from 1990 in New Zealand’s emissions by sector from 1990 to 2008


Figure 2.3.3 Change from 1990 in New Zealand’s emissions by sector from 1990 to 2008

  Energy
Gg CO2 equivalent
Industrial processes
Gg CO2 equivalent
Solvent and other product use
Gg CO2 equivalent
Agriculture
Gg CO2 equivalent
Waste
Gg CO2 equivalent
Total emissions
Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1991 -45.8 138.8 1.2 160.6 34.7 289.5
1992 2014.1 -30.1 1.6 -460.9 1.6 1526.2
1993 1166.4 -128.0 2.2 -119.2 25.4 946.8
1994 1045.6 -206.9 2.8 876.2 11.1 1728.8
1995 693.9 -71.4 3.4 1326.4 -178.5 1773.8
1996 1359.7 85.9 4.3 1631.2 -155.9 2925.2
1997 3596.3 -128.5 4.7 2307.3 -164.8 5614.9
1998 2085.9 96.3 5.0 1590.4 -230.1 3547.5
1999 3440.0 235.9 5.3 2017.2 -369.0 5329.4
2000 5782.8 177.0 5.6 3210.9 -358.8 8817.4
2001 7706.3 343.0 5.9 3812.5 -406.8 11460.9
2002 7951.9 475.3 14.6 3945.2 -453.7 11933.3
2003 9723.1 884.8 10.9 4559.5 -459.3 14719.0
2004 9242.4 677.9 6.8 4597.3 -519.3 14005.0
2005 10688.4 929.1 2.8 4917.1 -572.8 15964.6
2006 11064.1 895.0 -1.2 4880.5 -614.9 16223.4
2007 9610.9 1250.8 1.9 3698.0 -616.4 13945.2
2008 10796.1 906.2 -10.5 2960.9 -767.5 13885.1

Note: Total emissions exclude emissions and removals from the LULUCF sector.

2.4 Emission trends for indirect greenhouse gases and SO2

The indirect greenhouse gas emissions SO2, CO, NOx and NMVOCs are also reported in the inventory. Emissions of these gases in 1990 and 2008 are shown in Table 2.4.1. Indirect greenhouse gases are not included in New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions total.

Table 2.4.1 New Zealand’s emissions of indirect greenhouse gases in 1990 and 2008
Indirect gas Gg of gas(es)19902008 Change from 1990 (Gg) Change from 1990 (%)
NOx 102.0 162.1 +60.1 +58.9
CO 628.2 717.5 +89.3 +14.2
NMVOCs 134.2 171.3 +37.1 +27.6
SO2 56.4 79.9 +23.5 +41.7
Total 920.7 1,130.7 +209.9 +22.8

Note: Although there may be rounding errors in this table, the figures are consistent with estimates reported in the common reporting format tables.

Emissions of CO and NOx are largely from the energy sector. The energy sector produced 90.5 per cent of total CO emissions in 2008. The largest single source of CO emissions was from the road transportation subcategory. Similarly, the energy sector was the largest source of NOx emissions (98.4 per cent), with the road transportation subcategory dominating. Other large sources of NOx emissions were from the manufacturing industries, construction and energy industries subcategories.

The energy sector was also the largest producer of NMVOCs, producing 72.8 per cent of NMVOC emissions in 2008. Emissions from road transportation comprised 60.2 per cent of total NMVOC emissions. Other major sources of NMVOCs were in the solvent and other product use sector (20.3 per cent) and the industrial processes sector (6.9 per cent).

In 2008, emissions of SO2 from the energy sector comprised 86.5 per cent of total SO2 emissions. The energy industries category contributed 24.7 per cent, manufacturing industries and construction 28.3 per cent, and the transport category 15.7 per cent, of total SO2 emissions. The industrial processes sector contributed 13.5 per cent of total SO2 emissions. Aluminium production accounted for 7.9 per cent of SO2 emissions.

2.5 Article 3.3 activities under the Kyoto Protocol

For reporting under Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, New Zealand has chosen to categorise its forests into three subcategories: natural forest, pre-1990 planted forest and post-1989 forest. These three subcategories are also used for reporting the LULUCF sector under the Climate Change Convention (chapter 7). All forest land that existed at 31 December 1989 is included as either natural forest or pre-1990 planted forest. For these forests, only emissions from deforestation activities are reported. For the post-1989 forests, emissions and removals from carbon losses and gains due to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation are reported for the first year of the commitment period.

Carbon dioxide emissions associated with biomass burning are captured by, and reported under, the general carbon stock change calculation for forests. This is because there is no reduction in the carbon stock made for areas burnt prior to forest harvesting or deforestation.

New Zealand’s afforestation, reforestation and deforestation estimates do not include:

  • liming of afforested and reforested land because this activity does not occur
  • non-carbon dioxide emissions from controlled burning on deforested land because there is insufficient data to quantify the emissions from this activity. The notation NE (‘not estimated’) is reported in the common reporting format tables for controlled burning associated with deforestation
  • emissions associated with fertiliser use on deforested land because these are reported in the agriculture sector.

Total emissions and removals from Article 3.3 activities (section 11.1)

For 2008, net removals from land subject to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation were –14,416.8 Gg CO2-e (Table 2.5.1). This value includes removals from the growth of post-1989 forests and emissions from the conversion of land to post-1989 forest, harvesting of post-1989 forests, deforestation of all forest, and emissions from the disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland, liming and biomass burning. A detailed analysis of 2008 emissions and removals shows:

  • the total net CO2 removals based on carbon stock change were –14,417.3 Gg CO2
  • nitrous oxide emissions from disturbance associated with land-use conversion to cropland were 0.3 Gg CO2-e
  • carbon dioxide emissions from lime application of deforested land are estimated at 0.7 Gg CO2
  • methane emissions from the burning of biomass on afforestation/reforestation land were 0.3 Gg CO2-e and N2O emissions were 0.02 Gg CO2-e.

Afforestation and reforestation

During 2008, a gross area of 1,000 hectares of post-1989 forest was established. Between 1990 and 2008, it is estimated that a gross area of 580,524 hectares of post-1989 forest was established as a result of afforestation and reforestation activities. The gross area includes 11,749 hectares of land in transition to post-1989 forest that has subsequently been deforested. The net area of post-1989 forest as at 31 December 2008 was 568,775 hectares. The net area is the total area of post-1989 forest minus deforestation since 1 January 1990.

Deforestation

During 2008, 4,818 hectares of all forest (natural forest, pre-1990 planted forest and post-1989 forest), equivalent to emissions of 2,910.6 Gg CO2-e, was deforested. Deforestation of all forests in 2008 has decreased from the 2007 level of 18,151 hectares, equivalent to 13,115.6 Gg of CO2.

Table 2.5.1 New Zealand’s net emissions and removals from land subject to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation as reported under Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol in 2008
Source Gross area (ha) 1990–2008 Net area (ha)
2008
Emissions in 2008 (Gg CO2-e)
Afforestation/reforestation 580,524 568,775 –17,327.4
Forest land not harvested since the beginning of the commitment period 568,274 –17,395.1
Forest land harvested since the beginning of the commitment period 500 67.8
Deforestation 96,355 4,818 2,910.6
Total –14,416.8

Notes: Afforestation/reforestation refers to new forest established since 1 January 1990. The gross afforestation/reforestation area includes 11,749 hectares of land in transition to post-1989 forest that has subsequently been deforested. The net afforestation/reforestation area includes 1,000 hectares of new forest plantings in 2008. The 2008 areas are as at 31 December 2008. Columns may not total due to rounding.


3  Net removals are expressed as a negative value to assist the reader in clarifying that the value is a removal and not an emission.