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Chapter 10: Recalculations and improvements

This chapter summarises the recalculations and improvements made to the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory following the 2009 submission. Further detail on the recalculations is provided in chapters 3 to 8.

Each year the inventory is updated (existing activity data and/or emissions’ factors may be improved) and extended (each inventory submission includes a new inventory year). The inventory may also be expanded to include emissions from additional sources if a new source has been identified within the context of the revised 1996 IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 1996) and good practice guidance (IPCC, 2000 and 2003). Recalculations may also occur if activity data and emission factors have become available for sources that were previously reported as NE (‘not estimated’) because of insufficient data.

The use of improved methodologies and activity data in any sector will result in recalculation of the whole time series from 1990 to the current inventory. This means estimates of emissions in a given year may differ from emissions reported in the previous inventory submission. There may be exemptions to recalculating the entire time series and, where this has occurred, explanations are provided.

There are no recalculations included for Article 3.3 under the Kyoto Protocol as this is the first submission that includes the tables.

10.1 Explanations and justifications for recalculations

10.1.1 Energy

In this submission, the improvements made to the energy sector are summarised below.

All fuel combustion categories

  • Revisions in liquid, solid and gaseous fuels data sources have led to small activity data revisions (sections 3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3 and 3.3.4).
  • Emission factors for liquid fuels and gaseous fuels have been improved (sections 3.3.1, 3.3.2 and 3.3.3).

Fuel combustion: energy industries

  • Activity data for gaseous fuels reported for the public electricity and heat production subcategory is now annual data rather than quarterly data (section 3.3.1).
  • Activity data for biomass fuels reported for the public electricity and heat production subcategory is now reported back to 1990 (section 3.3.1).
  • Activity data for gaseous fuels reported for the manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries subcategory now includes data direct from the gas fields (section 3.3.1).

Fuel combustion: manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries

  • The manufacturing industries and construction category has been further disaggregated from 2000 onwards (section 3.3.2).
  • Activity data for gaseous fuels used in co-generation is now reported back to 1990 (section 3.3.2).
  • Electricity and co-generation biomass data is now based on quarterly data from companies involved with combusting wood residues to provide process heat in the wood processing industry (ie, kiln drying) (section 3.3.2).

Fuel combustion: other sectors

  • Improved commercial biomass data is now available from the Cogeneration Association of New Zealand. Residential biomass data is now based on New Zealand census results and wood consumption from a household energy end-use project (BRANZ, 2002) (section 3.3.4).
  • Activity data for liquid fuels in the other sectors category has been further disaggregated. Different emission factors applied to each type of liquid fuel have also been used (section 3.3.4).
  • Stationary and mobile splits for the agriculture subcategory have been improved by using the Statistics New Zealand’s Energy Use Survey: Primary industries 2008 (section 3.3.4).

Fugitive emissions from fuels: oil and natural gas

  • Venting, flaring and own-use activity data from gas/oil field operators has been revised due to the correction of manual entry errors in the data set (section 3.4.2).
  • Geothermal activity data has been revised due to the removal of the geothermal field ‘Tarawera’ (section 3.4.2).
  • Activity data of crude oil production in New Zealand (provided by the New Zealand Refining Company) has been revised (section 3.4.2).
  • Transmission and distribution data has been disaggregated. Activity data has also been revised as, previously, the total amount of gas entering the pipelines was reported where now the actual amount lost in terajoules is instead reported (section 3.4.2).

10.1.2 Industrial processes

In this submission, the improvements made to the industrial processes sector are summarised below.

Mineral products (section 4.2.5)

  • The IPCC (2000) default factor for cement-kiln dust correction factor has been applied to the whole time series for one cement company.
  • A data correction was made by one lime company for the 2007 calendar year.
  • Emissions from soda ash use are now included in this subcategory because of confidentiality concerns.

Chemical industry (section 4.3.5)

  • Daily emissions factor data for the three main gas fields in New Zealand is now used to derive a weighted average emission factor to estimate ammonia emissions for the whole time series.
  • Corrections were made to the hydrogen dataset by the Ministry of Economic Developing during the improvements made to their database during 2009.
  • All methanol emission estimates are now reported in the energy sector because of confidentiality concerns.

Metal production (section 4.4.5)

  • The accuracy, completeness and consistency of the emission estimates for steel production for Pacific Steel have improved for 2000–2007 due to a revision of assumptions for the scope and boundary of the emission source.
  • The accuracy, completeness and consistency of the entire time series for carbon dioxide emission from aluminium production have been largely improved due to revised input data.
  • The accuracy and consistency of the entire time series for perfluorocarbons from aluminium production have largely improved due to revised methodologies to earlier years, improved input data and corrections made to database errors at the aluminium plant.

Consumption of halocarbons and SF 6 (section 4.7.5)

  • The accuracy of emission estimates from halocarbon consumption has improved largely due to revised supply assumptions for the stationary refrigeration and air conditioning and mobile air conditioning categories.
  • The accuracy of the entire time series of SF6 emission estimates has largely improved due to revised assumptions due to new information.
  • There has been a review of the notation keys for consumption of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.

10.1.3 Solvent and other product use

There have been no recalculations made to this sector.

10.1.4 Agriculture

In this submission, the improvements made to the agriculture sector are summarised below.

  • Emissions from dairy cattle are now calculated using regional data rather than national averages.
  • Alpacas have a small population in New Zealand but are increasing in number and are therefore now included.
  • Although cropping makes up a very small part of New Zealand’s emissions from agriculture, potatoes are an important crop and therefore have been included in this submission.
  • New Zealand has adopted a country-specific FracGASM value of 0.1.

All activity data reported in the agriculture sector has been updated with the latest available data (Statistics New Zealand table builder and Infoshare database, 2008).

10.1.5 Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF)

With the introduction of the Land Use and Carbon Analysis System (LUCAS) in 2008, New Zealand has recalculated the LULUCF emission estimates for the entire time series.

The main reasons for the recalculation has been the improved mapping of land use and land-use change since 1990 and the inclusion of emissions resulting from land-use change from forest land to grassland. Improved New Zealand-specific methods, activity data and emission factors have also improved the accuracy, completeness and transparency of the estimates. The recalculations are summarised below.

  • Improved activity data as a result of new mapping of land use at 1990 and 2008 (section 7.1.2).
  • Changes in the land-use subcategories to improve the alignment between New Zealand’s forest land, grassland and wetlands categories, the IPCC land-use categories and the Kyoto Protocol forest definition. Previously, New Zealand had reported land-cover categories (section 7.1.2, Table 7.1.2.6).
  • Improved measurement of deforestation up until 1 January 2008 based on land-use change mapping rather than relying as previously on a range of information sources.
  • Land-use changes are now being reported in the ‘land converted to’ category where a land-use change has occurred since 1990. Previously, some land-use changes were being reported in land remaining land categories.
  • Improved modelling of soil carbon stock based on a country-specific model and data (section 7.1.2).
  • Updated liming data for 2007. In the previous submission, this data was still provisional and was based on a three-year average (section 7.1.2).
  • The use of conversion-specific biomass densities for biomass burning (section 7.1.2).
  • Improved accuracy of biomass carbon stocks in land use before conversion and annual growth in biomass for land converted to another land use (section 7.1.2, Tables 7.1.2.3 and 7.1.2.4).
  • An updated natural forest emission factor based on an analysis of the plot network established as part of LUCAS between 2002 and 2007 (section 7.2.1).
  • The use of an age-based and area-adjusted carbon yield table for the post-1989 forest category (section 7.2.5).
  • Recalculated figures for cropland and grassland to include both above- and below-ground biomass where IPCC defaults exist (section 7.1.2).
  • A modified age-class distribution used for pre-1990 planted forest and post-1989 forest (section 7.2.5).
  • Improved calculation of emissions resulting from changes between land-use subcategories, and from multiple land-use changes between 1990 and 2008. The new LUCAS Data Management System means that New Zealand can now consistently estimate annual changes in carbon and non-carbon emissions associated with annual land-use changes for the five carbon pools and using a master set of New Zealand-specific and IPCC default emission factors (section 7.1.2).

10.1.6 Waste

The only recalculation made to the waste sector was the 2007 value for methane from solid waste and domestic wastewater handling due to an updated population estimate from Statistics New Zealand.

10.2 Implications for emission levels

The overall effect of all recalculations in the 2010 inventory submission is shown in Figure 10.3.2. There was a 1.7 per cent (1,079.2 Gg CO2-e) decrease in total emissions for the base year, 1990, and a 1.1 cent (831.4 Gg CO2-e) decrease in total emissions for the 2007 year.

Figure 10.2.1 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s total greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.2.1 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s total greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

  2009 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent 2010 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 61852.8 60773.63
1991 62036.4 61063.14
1992 63219.6 62299.83
1993 62953.0 61720.46
1994 64117.1 62502.42
1995 64466.5 62547.4
1996 66030.3 63698.87
1997 68885.5 66388.48
1998 66970.2 64321.17
1999 68616.3 66103.05
2000 70597.7 69591.06
2001 73115.8 72234.52
2002 73452.4 72706.9
2003 76005.1 75492.63
2004 75054.0 74778.61
2005 77174.7 76738.24
2006 77599.1 76997.05
2007 75550.2 74718.81

10.3 Implications for emission trends

In New Zealand’s 2009 inventory submission (1990–2007), emissions were 22.1 per cent above the level reported in 1990. As a result of the recalculations in the 2010 inventory submission, total emissions for 2007 were 22.9 per cent above 1990. Changes in trends for individual sectors (excluding the solvent other product use sector) are discussed in the following sections. The solvent and other product use sector is not included because emissions are negligible throughout the time series.

Energy sector

The recalculations made within the energy sector (Figure 10.3.2) are summarised in section 10.1.1. The recalculations have resulted in a 410.1 Gg CO2-e decrease in energy emissions for 1990 and a 0.5 Gg CO2‑e increase in energy emissions in 2007 (Figure 10.3.1). These recalculations were responsible for a 0.7 per cent decrease of the 1990 recalculation in total emissions and a 0.001 per cent increase of the recalculation for the 2007 year.

Figure 10.3.1 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s energy sector from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.1 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s energy sector from 1990 to 2007

  2009 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent 2010 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 23452.8 23042.71
1991 23750.8 22996.89
1992 25465.1 25056.78
1993 24809.3 24209.14
1994 25066.9 24088.33
1995 25042.7 23736.65
1996 26075.3 24402.39
1997 28477.4 26638.99
1998 27027.4 25128.62
1999 28160.8 26482.75
2000 28987.3 28825.51
2001 30855.9 30749.03
2002 30951.4 30994.64
2003 32550.1 32765.84
2004 31845.2 32285.08
2005 33479.0 33731.1
2006 34010.6 34106.8
2007 32653.1 32653.63

Industrial processes

The recalculations made within the industrial processes sector (Figure 10.3.2) are summarised in section 10.1.2. The recalculations have resulted in a 23.4 Gg CO2-e decrease in industrial processes emissions for 1990 and a 34.7 Gg CO2-e increase in industrial processes emissions in 2007. These recalculations were responsible for a 0.01 per cent decrease of the 1990 recalculation in total emissions and a 0.1 per cent increase of the recalculation for the 2007 year.

Figure 10.3.2 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s industrial processes sector from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.2 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s industrial processes sector from 1990 to 2007

  2009 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent 2010 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 3409.2 3385.786
1991 3235.7 3524.542
1992 3328.4 3355.652
1993 3304.9 3257.806
1994 3246.2 3178.873
1995 3390.2 3314.339
1996 3556.9 3471.699
1997 3308.1 3257.246
1998 3517.1 3482.114
1999 3678.7 3621.657
2000 3648.0 3562.811
2001 3777.3 3728.834
2002 3951.1 3861.058
2003 4287.6 4270.61
2004 4052.8 4063.642
2005 4266.9 4314.886
2006 4233.8 4280.818
2007 4601.9 4636.59

Agriculture

The recalculations made within the agriculture sector (Figure 10.3.3) are summarised in section 10.1.2. There was a 645.7 Gg CO2-e decrease in agriculture emissions in 1990 and an 866.6 Gg CO2-e decrease in agriculture emissions in 2007. These changes were responsible for a 1.0 per cent decrease of the 1990 recalculation in total emissions and a 1.1 per cent decrease of the recalculation for the 2007 year.

Figure 10.3.3 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s agriculture sector from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.3 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s agriculture sector from 1990 to 2007

  2009 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent 2010 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 32511.1 31865.41
1991 32534.1 32026.01
1992 31943.2 31404.52
1993 32331.5 31746.25
1994 33310.4 32741.59
1995 33,728.9 33191.82
1996 34070.0 33496.61
1997 34780.5 34172.73
1998 34171.1 33455.82
1999 34660.8 33882.63
2000 35836.0 35076.29
2001 36403.9 35677.9
2002 36509.4 35810.66
2003 37136.2 36424.95
2004 37188.7 36462.67
2005 37519.1 36782.5
2006 37491.2 36745.89
2007 36430.0 35563.37

LULUCF

The recalculations made within the LULUCF sector (Figure 10.3.4) are explained in section 10.1.5. The recalculations have resulted in a 12,927.8 Gg CO2‑e decrease in net LULUCF emissions in 1990 and a 7,015.3 Gg CO2-e increase to net LULUCF emissions in 2007.

The recalculations made to net removals from the LULUCF sector are largely a result of changes to the assumptions used to estimate emissions and removals from the forest land and grassland categories. The effect of recalculations to the forest land and grassland categories is shown in Figures 10.3.5 and 10.3.6.

Figure 10.3.4 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s LULUCF sector from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.4 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s LULUCF sector from 1990 to 2007

Year Recalculations of net emissions/removals – all land-use categories (Gg CO2-equivalent)
  2009 submission 2010 submission
1990 -18,138.5 -31,066.3
1991 -17,271.4 -31,534.6
1992 -15,145.9 -30,544.9
1993 -14,907.0 -30,652.6
1994 -15,895.5 -29,891.8
1995 -15,892.6 -28,768.1
1996 -16,652.0 -28,708.8
1997 -18,620.4 -29,871.6
1998 -18,859.3 -31,793.1
1999 -19,143.3 -32,450.1
2000 -19,971.5 -31,281.2
2001 -20,358.2 -30,206.9
2002 -20,033.3 -27,591.0
2003 -21,230.0 -28,423.1
2004 -24,853.6 -27,899.6
2005 -25,273.7 -23,792.7
2006 -23,877.3 -19,714.1
2007 -23,836.0 -16,820.7

Figure 10.3.5 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s forest land category from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.5 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s forest land category from 1990 to 2007

Year Recalculations of net emissions/removals - forest land category (Gg CO2-equivalent)
  2009 submission 2010 submission
1990 -18,649.2 -32,856.7
1991 -17,806.1 -33,321.8
1992 -15,707.3 -32,356.5
1993 -15,503.3 -32,504.0
1994 -16,531.6 -31,775.4
1995 -16,518.3 -30,628.4
1996 -17,269.7 -30,559.3
1997 -19,282.6 -31,749.3
1998 -19,566.1 -33,747.1
1999 -19,894.7 -34,406.9
2000 -20,761.5 -34,397.3
2001 -21,189.7 -33,313.0
2002 -20,844.0 -30,533.1
2003 -21,989.8 -32,673.1
2004 -25,631.6 -34,202.2
2005 -26,018.2 -34,089.5
2006 -24,577.3 -31,804.1
2007 -24,527.9 -30,651.5

Figure 10.3.6 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s grassland category from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.6 Effect of recalculations on net removals from New Zealand’s grassland category from 1990 to 2007

Year Recalculations of net emissions/removals – grassland category (Gg CO2-equivalent)
  2009 submission 2010 submission
1990 863.9 1,742.4
1991 888.0 1,741.3
1992 914.9 1,767.7
1993 949.3 1,809.0
1994 988.4 1,842.5
1995 980.4 1,823.5
1996 974.7 1,817.8
1997 1,018.3 1,846.0
1998 1,061.8 1,923.2
1999 1,105.4 1,926.9
2000 1,143.1 3,066.7
2001 1,183.5 3,058.4
2002 1,166.2 2,902.0
2003 1,120.7 4,192.3
2004 1,139.5 6,210.5
2005 1,109.7 10,138.3
2006 1,069.7 11,904.7
2007 1,063.7 13,618.3

Waste

The recalculations made within the waste sector (Figure 10.3.7) are explained in section 10.1.6. There were no recalculations made to the waste sector for the base year and for 2007.

Figure 10.3.7 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s waste sector from 1990 to 2007

Figure 10.3.7 Effect of recalculations on New Zealand’s waste sector from 1990 to 2007

  2009 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent 2010 Submission Gg CO2 equivalent
1990 2,438.2 2,438.2
1991 2,472.9 2,472.9
1992 2,439.8 2,439.8
1993 2,463.5 2,463.5
1994 2,449.3 2,449.3
1995 2,259.6 2,259.6
1996 2,282.3 2,282.3
1997 2,273.3 2,273.3
1998 2,208.1 2,208.1
1999 2,069.2 2,069.2
2000 2,079.3 2,079.3
2001 2,031.3 2,031.3
2002 1,984.4 1,984.4
2003 1,978.8 1,978.8
2004 1,918.9 1,918.9
2005 1,865.4 1,865.4
2006 1,823.2 1,823.2
2007 1,821.8 1,821.8

10.4 Recalculations in response to the review process and planned improvements

10.4.1 Response to the review process

Many of the recommendations made by the expert review team during the centralised review of New Zealand’s greenhouse gas inventories submitted in 2007 and 2008 have been implemented. Due to prioritisation and limited resourcing, some of the recommendations have been partially implemented and some are ongoing. However, New Zealand does have the full implementation of the recommendations planned for in the risk register. The recommendations made in UNFCCC (2009) and New Zealand’s response are included below in Table 10.4.1. There were no recommendations made for the agriculture sector.

Table 10.4.1 New Zealand’s response to expert review team recommendations from the individual review of the greenhouse gas inventories of New Zealand submitted 2007 and 2008
Year of review Sector Expert review team recommendation New Zealand response
2008 General Provide more information in the national inventory report on how recalculations affect the time series for categories and a justification of how recalculations have improved the accuracy of emission estimates, time-series consistency and completeness of the inventory. Implemented. Further information has been included in the uncertainties, time-series consistency and category-specific recalculations sections of the report.
2008 Energy: sector-wide Data produced externally should be subject to procedures, including quality-assurance and quality-control procedures, in accordance with the IPCC (2000). Partially implemented. Further documentation and explanatory background material has been included in this inventory submission, in particular, fugitive emissions from oil and gas. New Zealand will continue to work on this.
2008 Energy: sector-wide Consult with Statistics New Zealand in order to ensure the proper aggregation of detailed data from the statistical office into the subcategories required in the common reporting format tables. Implemented. This inventory submission includes disaggregated data under the manufacturing industries and construction category post-2000. Some of the notation keys in the common reporting format tables have also been updated where relevant.
2008 Energy: comparison of the reference approach with the sectoral approach and international statistics Update the references for gaseous fuels and provide an appropriate explanation for the NZEIH abbreviation used in the national inventory report. Implemented. These references have now been updated and explained.
2008 Energy: comparison of the reference approach with the sectoral approach and international statistics Provide a general explanation of the differences for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and, in particular, address the issue of negative differences in future submissions. Reconcile the methods used in estimating activity data. Ongoing. New Zealand is investigating why large differences occur between the reference and sectoral approaches for some years. This mainly involves investigating historical data and statistical differences in the supply and demand tables.
2008 Energy: feedstocks and non-energy use of fuels Improve the transparency by providing in the national inventory report a carbon flow cycle (eg, carbon mass balance for natural gas (from the well to the end consumer) and associated products) and by clearly indicating where and how CO2 is accounted for in the common reporting format tables in order to avoid double counting or the possible underestimation of emissions from fuel combustion. Implemented. This inventory submission includes energy flow diagrams for liquid fuels, solid fuels and natural gas.
2008 Energy: country-specific issues Improve transparency by providing a description of the geothermal emission estimation methodology in the national inventory report. Ongoing. New Zealand has started investigating the discrepancies between activity data, CO2 and CH4 emissions for some years, particularly the late 1990s.
2008 Energy: stationary combustion liquid fuels – CO2 Review the allocation, reallocate the data into appropriate mobile combustion categories, if necessary, and perform the corresponding recalculations. Implemented. Using the Statistics New Zealand’s Energy Use Survey: Primary industries 2008, New Zealand was able to calculate more accurate and detailed mobile/stationary splits. These splits have now been implemented into the system along with documentation of how these splits were arrived at.
2008 Energy: stationary combustion solid fuels – CO2 Address the discrepancy between the emission estimates and the methods described in the national inventory report and, in order to improve transparency, provide appropriate background information on carbon content of coal used in different sectors. Implemented. Carbon dioxide emission factors for coal-use are now consistently applied.
2008 Energy: stationary combustion gaseous fuels – CO2 Provide full carbon flow from Maui and Kapuni gas fields through mixing stations and crude methanol production to treated natural gas available to the end consumers and carbon stored as feedstock in future national inventory report, along with the appropriate corresponding activity data. Implemented. Section 3.3.1 now states that the CO2 that is released is included in the manufacturing of solid fuels and other energy industries subcategory. An energy flow diagram for natural gas is also included in this inventory submission.
2008 Energy: stationary combustion gaseous fuels – CO2 Improve transparency of emission estimates and address this issue in future submissions by providing a carbon flow of natural gas produced, stored as feedstock and used for combustion. Implemented. This inventory submission includes an energy flow diagram for liquid fuels, solid fuels and natural gas. An updated balance table is also provided in this inventory submission, which includes an updated non-energy use category.
2008 Industrial processes: sector-wide Implement source-specific quality-assurance and quality-control activities for the largest key categories. Implemented. Six of New Zealand’s industrial process companies were visited by members of the national inventory team to assess the quality-assurance and control procedures employed by the companies.
2007 and 2008 Industrial processes: sector-wide Provide more information on how recalculations affect the time series of categories and a justification of how they improve the accuracy of the emissions, time-series consistency or completeness. Implemented. New Zealand provided more information for recalculation explanations in the 2009 submission. The development of recalculation forms has further enabled the transparency for this submission.
2008 Industrial processes: sector-wide Provide consistent supplementary information on the corresponding sectoral part of the national inventory report in the common reporting format feedstock Table 1A(d) and its documentation box. Implemented for the 2009 submission.
2008 Industrial processes: sector-wide Reassess the uncertainty estimates for the activity data and provide a more detailed and comprehensive description of the uncertainty estimates used for each category. Ongoing.
2008 Industrial processes: cement production Improve transparency by including in the national inventory report the tier of the method used to calculate emissions for each year, information on the selected cement-kiln dust correction factor values and its trends, a description of the quality control performed by the plants/inventory agency on reported data as well as the conclusion of the quality-control procedure performed during the Party’s review of the emission factor. Partially implemented. New Zealand has provided information on the tier used and the selected cement-kiln dust correction factor. As the cement-kiln dust correction factor is the IPCC (2000) default, New Zealand has not provided information on its trend. New Zealand will work with the cement companies to include text describing their quality-control procedures for future inventory submissions.
2008 Industrial processes: ammonia production Improve, in particular, the section in the national inventory report on emissions and storage of the feedstocks and other non-energy use of fuels as discussed in the energy sector of this report and explain or resolve the apparent discrepancies observed during the review. Implemented.
2008 Industrial processes: iron and steel production CO2 Improve the description of the category in the national inventory report, including the rationale for the selection of the emission factors and carbon contents, and provide information on which flux elements are included in the mass balance calculation, and where and how the resulting emissions are reported in the common reporting format tables. Partially implemented. In this submission, New Zealand has recalculated emissions from 2000 onwards for Pacific Steel and has included a description explaining the method used. New Zealand will continue to work with the steel companies to provide text regarding the rationale for the parameters.
2008 Industrial processes: aluminium production CO2 Improve transparency by providing in the national inventory report a more detailed description of methods, including the formulas used to calculate the emissions, and the rationale for the selection of the emission factors and carbon contents. Partially implemented. In this submission, New Zealand has provided more information on the method used to calculate carbon dioxide emissions. New Zealand will continue working with NZAS to further improve transparency in future submissions.
2008 Industrial processes: aluminium production PFCs Provide information on inter-annual variations and how emission factors for the early 1990s were determined and what tiers were used for what years, in future submissions.

Further check that calculations were performed correctly.
Implemented. New Zealand tabled explanations for inter-annual variations in the 2009 submission. In this submission, New Zealand has recalculated the time series and has provided information on how estimates were derived. The ratio of the PFCs is now consistent with the improved estimates.
2008 Industrial processes: consumption of halocarbons and SF6 and HFCs Provide more information in the national inventory report on the emission factors and leakage rates used, particularly for the largest sources (eg, commercial refrigeration and mobile air conditioning) in future submissions. Ongoing.
2008 Solvent and other product use: sector-wide Change the notation keys for CO2 to not estimated and review the notation keys for N2O from solvent and other product use. Implemented. New Zealand changed the notation keys for CO2, SO2, CO and NOX to NE (not estimated) in the 2009 submission.
2008 LULUCF: sector-wide Prepare and implement quality-assurance and quality-control procedures for all reported land-use categories in future submissions. Implemented. Quality-assurance and quality-control plans have been developed for all areas of data collection. IPCC (2000) Tier 1 checks have been carried out on all default factors used for calculating biomass carbon stocks in land-use categories before conversion, and annual growth in biomass for land converted to another land use.
2008 LULUCF: sector-wide Use a minimum of 20 years as the conversion period in order to distinguish the subcategories in LUCAS. Partially implemented. New Zealand is using a conversion period of 28 years where the data is available. Otherwise, New Zealand has assumed that land use was constant at 1990 where data on land use prior to 1990 is unavailable. Twenty-eight years is the maturity period New Zealand has chosen for its lands to reach a steady state of equilibrium, and is the average age that planted forests are harvested (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 2008a).
2008 LULUCF: sector-wide Review land-area and emission estimates, particularly for forest conversion, as emissions may be being underestimated. Implemented. For natural and pre-1990 planted forest categories, the area of deforestation between 1990 and 2007 has been provided by new land-use mapping. Information on deforestation in 2008 and on the deforestation of post-1989 forests between 1990 and 2007 is from the Deforestation Intentions Survey commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The data has been compared with other publically available information on deforestation (from companies’ annual reports) and is comparable.
2008 LULUCF: sector-wide Review the method for estimating carbon stock changes in soils in future submissions as changes in mineral soils from land conversion post-1990 are lagged but those from pre-1990 are not. Not implemented. The lack of data on land-use change prior to 1990 has restricted New Zealand’s ability to progress this issue. Additional work to look at what data on land-use change prior to 1990 is available is under way to help New Zealand fulfil this reporting requirement. A commitment has been made to go back 28 years prior to 1990 and establish land-use change from 31 December 1961. This will be implemented in time for the 2011 national inventory report.
2008 LULUCF: forest land remaining forest land CO2 Collect data for, and estimate the changes in, carbon stock in the mineral soils of plantations, and reconsider the parameter for dead organic matter in future submissions, in particular, in the New Zealand LUCAS. Implemented. In this submission, the carbon stock change in mineral soils has been estimated, and the estimate of dead organic matter has been recalculated. Data collection on the amount of dead organic matter in forest land continues.
2008 LULUCF: land converted to forest land CO2 With the exception of low-producing grassland converted to forest land, carbon stock changes for land converted to forest are inputted as included elsewhere in the common reporting format Table 5.A. The changes were incorrectly reported in forest land remaining forest land. Partially implemented. As a result of having additional data on land use as at the commencement of 1990, in this submission all land-use changes as at the start of 2008 are being reported in ‘land converted to’ categories for a minimum of 18 years
(1990–2008). Additional information about land use prior to 1990 is available and has been incorporated where it is available, eg, for pre-1990 planted forest. Additional work to investigate what data on land-use change prior to 1990 is available is under way to help New Zealand fulfil this reporting requirement.
2008 LULUCF: cropland remaining cropland CO2 The expert review team recommends that New Zealand use country-specific parameters, include carbon loss from perennial crops, and estimate carbon stock changes in soils, particularly in cultivated organic soils, in future submissions. Partially implemented. In this submission, New Zealand is accounting for both carbon loss and gain in land converted to and from perennial cropland. Tier 1 defaults are used for these estimates where a default is available. Where no Tier 1 factor is available, for example, for dead organic matter (GPG-LULUCF, section 3.3.1.1.1, IPCC, 2003), changes in this pool are reported as not estimated. Carbon stock changes in soils are estimated in this submission using the Soils Carbon Monitoring System.
2008 LULUCF: N2O emissions associated with land-use conversion to cropland N2O (non-key category) That the Party use the same country-specific emission factor for N2O as used in the agriculture sector for estimating N2O emissions associated with land-use conversion to cropland. Implemented. This has been done for this submission.
2008 Waste: solid waste disposal on land CH4 Either revise the methods used to estimate the net emissions of methane, or provide more detailed justification for the current method and the reported volume of recovered methane demonstrating that it is not overestimated. In 2009, New Zealand obtained new estimates for landfill gas recovery. These estimates are currently going through the external peer-review process as required by New Zealand’s national system before acceptance into the inventory.
2008 Waste: industrial wastewater CH4 and N2O Estimate and report emissions from wine industry (CH4 and N2O) and wool scouring (N2O), or provide sufficient information to indicate that the emissions from these sources have become negligible by 2006. There is no anaerobic treatment of wastewater from these industries now (Beca, 2007).

10.4.2 Planned improvements

Priorities for inventory development are guided by the analysis of key categories (level and trend), uncertainty surrounding existing emission and removal estimates, and recommendations received from previous international reviews of New Zealand’s inventory. The inventory improvement plan and the quality-control and quality-assurance plan are updated annually to reflect current and future inventory development. The risk register also helps New Zealand prioritise improvements to the inventory.

Planned improvements to methodologies and emission factors are discussed under each sector as appropriate.