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Table A2.2

CH4 emission factors used in the energy sector category

  Emission factor t CH4/PJ Source

Natural gas

   

Electricity - boilers

2.745

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-15) average for natural gas boilers and large gas-fired turbines > 3 MW

Commercial

1.08

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-19) natural gas boilers

Residential

0.9

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-18) gas heaters

Domestic transport (CNG)

567

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-43) passenger cars (uncontrolled)

Other stationary (mainly industrial)

1.26

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-16) small natural gas boilers

Liquid fuels

   

Stationary sources

   

Electricity - residual oil

0.855

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-15) residual oil boilers - normal firing

Electricity - distillate oil

0.855

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-15) distillate oil boilers - normal firing

Industrial (including refining) - residual oil

2.85

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-16) residual oil boilers

Industrial - distillate oil

0.19

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-16) distillate oil boilers

Industrial - LPG

1.045

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-18) propane/butane furnaces

Commercial - residual oil

1.33

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-19) residual oil boilers

Commercial - distillate oil

0.665

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-19) distillate oil boilers

Commercial - LPG

1.045

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-18) propane/butane furnaces

Residential - distillate oil

0.665

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-18) distillate oil furnaces

Residential - LPG

1.045

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-18) propane/butane furnaces

Agriculture - stationary

3.8

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-49) diesel engines (agriculture)

Mobile sources

   

LPG

28.5

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-44) passenger cars (uncontrolled)

Petrol - 1990-1993*

60

Bone, Hunt and Spring (1993)

Petrol - 2003 onwards*

18.525

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-27) passenger cars (uncontrolled - midpoint of average g/MJ)

Diesel - 1990-1993*

13

Bone, Hunt and Spring (1993)

Diesel - 2003 onwards*

3.8

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-32) passenger cars (uncontrolled - g/MJ)

Navigation (fuel oil and diesel)

6.65

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-48) ocean going ships

Aviation fuel/kerosene

1.9

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-48) jet and turboprop aircraft

Coal

   

Combustion

   

Electricity generation

0.665

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-15) pulverised bituminous combustion - dry bottom, wall fired

Cement

0.95

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-17) cement, lime coal kilns

Lime

0.95

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-17) cement, lime coal kilns

Industry

0.665

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-16) dry bottom, wall fired coal boilers

Commercial

9.5

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-19) coal boilers

Residential

285

IPCC Tier 1 (table 1-7) coal - residential

Biomass

   

Wood stoker boilers

14.25

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-16) wood stoker boilers

Wood - fireplaces

285

IPCC Tier 1 (table 1-7) wood - residential

Biogas

1.08

IPCC Tier 2 (table 1-19) gas boilers

* For the years 1994-2002, emission factors are interpolated between the NZ specific emission factors (Bone, Hunt and Spring) and the IPCC defaults.