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The energy sector includes emissions from fuel combustion (including for transport and to produce heat in industry), and fugitive emissions. Figure 9 provides an indication of the emission profile from the energy sector in 2007.
Fuel combustion is the controlled burning of solid, liquid or gaseous fossil fuels (such as coal, petrol and natural gas) to generate heat or energy.
Fugitive emissions are non-combustion emissions associated with the production, processing, transport, storage, transmission and distribution of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas.
Transport emissions include those from road, rail, domestic air and shipping. To maintain consistency with the Climate Change Convention reporting guidelines, emissions from international air and shipping are reported in the inventory but are not included in the national total.
In 2007, transport contributed 20 per cent (14.9 Mt CO2-e) of New Zealand’s total emissions and 46 per cent of total energy emissions. Emissions in 2007 had increased by 70 per cent (6.1 Mt CO2-e) from the 1990 level of 8.8 Mt CO2-e.
Electricity generation, petroleum refining, gas processing and solid fuel manufacturing are all reported under the energy industries category. Emissions from energy industries were 7.9 Mt CO2-e in 2007 and 10 per cent of national emissions. Emissions from energy industries had increased 31 per cent (1.8 Mt CO2-e) from the 1990 level of 6.0 Mt CO2-e. This increase was primarily due to growth in electricity demand in New Zealand, requiring more electricity to be generated by burning gas, coal and oil.
In 2007, electricity generation and heat production comprised 9 per cent (6.6 Mt CO2-e) of total emissions, or 84 per cent of the energy industries subcategory. Emissions from electricity generation and heat production had increased 91 per cent (3.2 Mt CO2-e) from the 1990 level of 3.5 Mt CO2-e. The remaining emissions in the energy industries category were from petroleum refining (0.9 Mt CO2-e), gas processing, solid fuel manufacturing and other energy industries (0.3 Mt CO2-e). In 2007, emissions from petroleum refining had increased 16 per cent (0.1 Mt CO2-e) from a 1990 level of 0.8 Mt CO2-e. In 2007, emissions from solid fuel manufacturing and other energy industries were 81 per cent (1.4 Mt CO2-e) lower than the 1990 level of 1.8 Mt CO2-e.
Emissions from the manufacturing industries and construction category included emissions from the manufacture of steel, non-ferrous metals, pulp and paper, and food processing. Emissions from manufacturing industries and construction contributed 7 per cent (5.4 Mt CO2-e) to total emissions in 2007. This was an 18 per cent (0.8 Mt CO2-e) increase from the 1990 level of 4.6 Mt CO2-e.
Emissions from the commercial, institutional and residential sectors are reported under the other fuel combustion category. This category includes emissions from agricultural, fisheries and forestry equipment. Emissions were 4 per cent (2.8 Mt CO2-e) of total emissions in 2007 and had decreased 4 per cent (0.1 Mt CO2-e) from the 1990 level of 2.9 Mt CO2-e.
Fugitive emissions in 2007 were 1.8 Mt CO2-e, and contributed 2 per cent of total emissions. This was an increase of 43 per cent (0.5 Mt CO2-e) from the 1990 level of 1.2 Mt CO2-e.