This page contains links to economic impact studies, science reports, and surveys of current practice that supported the development of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management.
Economic impact studies
These reports were commissioned by central government to consider the potential environmental, economic, social and cultural impacts of choices for setting freshwater quality objectives and limits at a regional scales. The economic impact studies assessed a range of scenarios for managing water quality.
The results are generated from a series of models, each with limitations, and need to be interpreted with care. The purpose of these studies is to integrate environmental and economic information in a way that can support community discussions about the potential impacts of freshwater management choices across all sectors. The results are not intended to dictate the choices that the community will make in managing water quality.
Aqualinc: Estimated Age in Surface Water and Changes in Nitrogen Concentration in Groundwater in Upper Waikato Catchment
This report estimates groundwater lag times for surface water tributary catchments in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment to support analysis into the implications of meeting water quality objectives, including the National Objectives Framework. This was done using simulation modelling, analysis of surface water chemistry, and analysis of surface water quality and flow measurements.
|NIWA: Catchment models nutrients and microbial indicators, modelling application to the Upper Waikato catchment|| |
This report models nutrients and microbial indicators in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment to support analysis into the implications of meeting water quality, including the National Objectives Framework. A simplified catchment model for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll concentrations was developed. Concentrations of E.Coli were also modelled under various land use and stock exclusion scenarios.
This report describes an economic model of the economic consequences of meeting water quality objectives in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment. A range of policy scenarios are run through the model, some based on the National Objectives Framework.
This report analyses the economic consequences of achieving a nitrate toxicity bottom line based on the National Objectives Framework in the Hinds zone in Canterbury under a number of different policy scenarios.
This report provides an overview of the contribution and the value of water to the outputs of key economic sectors in the region
This study evaluates the economic impacts and environmental outcomes of regional policy scenarios to reduce nutrient discharges at farm level in Southland
This scientific study aggregates the estimated farm level and point source nutrient discharges to downstream water quality concentrations of nitrate (N), phosphorus (P) and E. coli for 73 monitored sites in the Southland region.
This study assesses whether regional policy scenarios modelled at farm level (NZIER study) can result in water quality concentrations that can achieve national bottom lines for ecological health and human health in the Southland region.
This study identifies the non-market values (eg, recreational, existence) associated with freshwater in Southland and provides a first step in assessing the marginal benefit of improving water quality on some of those values.
This report presents the results of the research project that looks into understanding farmers' responses to policies setting limits on the use of freshwater resources. The purpose of the study is to use the resulting knowledge to improve current quantitative methods used for policy evaluation. Obtaining farmer behavioural data will strengthen the analysis of land-use change and adoption of farm practices, which will provide more realistic predictions for land users' responses to economic instruments.
The case studies present an introduction to the potential mitigation costs to reduce contaminant lossess at industrial and municipal sites that are point sources of contaminants.
This summary report provides an overview of the component economic impact studies relevant to the Southland Region.
This report evaluates the potential economic impact on electricity generation arising from hypothetical altered minimum flow regimes on various rivers (used for electricity generation).
This report provides a tool to assist with regional decision-making and does not represent actual or proposed situations.
These scientific reports represent the advice and evidence which informed discussions and analysis by expert panel members and the Science Review Panel to develop the attributes proposed in the Discussion Document and amended NPS-FM. The reports themselves do not reflect the final policy proposal.
|Environmental Research Institute, The University of Waikato: A macroinvertebrate attribute to assess ecosystem health of New Zealand waterways for the National Objectives Framework – Issues and options||This is one of two technical reports that assessed the options and implications of using the Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) as an attribute in the NPS-FM. This report specifically looked at identifying potential threshold values to define numeric attribute states for the MCI.|
|Cawthron Institute: Relationships between macroinvertebrate community index and environmental drivers||This is one of two technical reports that assessed the options and implications of using the Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) as an attribute in the NPS-FM. This report specifically looked at the cause-and-effect relationships between environmental drivers and MCI scores, and the potential response of the MCI to changes in catchment management.|
|NIWA: Derivation of indicative ammoniacal nitrogen guidelines for the National Objectives Framework||This memorandum documents the technical advice and evidence used to inform the development of the ammonia toxicity attribute.|
|NIWA: National Objectives Framework for Freshwater: Statistical considerations for assessing progress towards objectives with emphasis on secondary contact recreation values||This report provides statistical advice about alternative approaches to defining thresholds and sample statistics for the E. coli attribute.|
|Cawthron Institute: National Objectives Framework for Freshwater: An assessment of banding statistics for planktonic cyanobacteria||This report provides statistical advice about alternative approaches to defining sample statistics for the planktonic cyanobacteria attribute.|
|NIWA & The University of Waikato: National Objectives Framework - Comments on the need for inclusion of nutrient levels for lakes||This paper provides advice to inform the development of the nutrient and phytoplankton attributes for the trophic state aspect of ecosystem health for lakes.|
|NIWA: National Objectives Framework - Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen & pH|| |
This technical report provides background information about temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH as potential attributes to protect the 'Ecosystem Health' value in rivers. It also provides information on regulatory approaches used internationally.
This technical report summarises the outcomes of the ‘Periphyton Science Panel’ deliberations to define a periphyton attribute for ecosystem health in rivers. It also provides comparisons of the proposed attributes with monitoring and modelled data from several regions with appropriate monitoring data.
This technical report summarises the outcomes of the ‘Cyanobacteria Science Panel’ deliberations to define a secondary contact recreation cyanobacteria attributes for rivers and lakes. It also provides comparisons of the proposed attributes with monitoring data from several regions with known cyanobacteria blooms.
|NIWA: Classification and Objective Bands for Monitored Lakes|| |
This technical report summarises the outcomes of the 'Lakes Science Panel' deliberations to define a classification system and ecosystem health attributes for lakes. It also provides comparisons of monitoring data from 114 lakes with the proposed attributes.
This technical report provides evidence and advice used in setting the E. Coli attribute bands for secondary contact recreation in rivers and lakes.
|NIWA: Updating nitrate toxicity effects on freshwater aquatic species|| |
This existing report was used to inform the development of the nitrate toxicity attribute.
|MfE: Microbiological Water Quality Guidelines for Marine and Freshwater Recreational Areas (SFRG)|| |
This existing report provides rationale and guidance for monitoring and managing microbiological health risks from contact recreation in rivers and lakes.
Surveys of current practice
This section contains a collection of reports covering surveys of current practice and techniques that apply to water management for local government and resource users.
This report compiles a list of mitigation strategies for managing water quality that are currently available in New Zealand. It provides a commentary on their relative cost-effectiveness.
This report explores accounting systems and limit-setting processes used by regional councils for managing freshwater resources.