Supporting scientific and economic impact papers for the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management

This page contains links to economic impact studies, science reports, and surveys of current practice that supported the development of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management.

Economic impact studies

These reports were commissioned by central government to consider the potential environmental, economic, social and cultural impacts of choices for setting freshwater quality objectives and limits at a regional scales. The economic impact studies assessed a range of scenarios for managing water quality.

The results are generated from a series of models, each with limitations, and need to be interpreted with care. The purpose of these studies is to integrate environmental and economic information in a way that can support community discussions about the potential impacts of freshwater management choices across all sectors. The results are not intended to dictate the choices that the community will make in managing water quality.

Title

Description

 
This report estimates groundwater lag times for surface water tributary catchments in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment to support analysis into the implications of meeting water quality objectives, including the National Objectives Framework. This was done using simulation modelling, analysis of surface water chemistry, and analysis of surface water quality and flow measurements.
NIWA: Catchment models nutrients and microbial indicators, modelling application to the Upper Waikato catchment
This report models nutrients and microbial indicators in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment to support analysis into the implications of meeting water quality, including the National Objectives Framework. A simplified catchment model for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll concentrations was developed. Concentrations of E.Coli were also modelled under various land use and stock exclusion scenarios.
This report describes an economic model of the economic consequences of meeting water quality objectives in the Upper Waikato sub-catchment. A range of policy scenarios are run through the model, some based on the National Objectives Framework.

Landcare: Modelling Economic Impacts of Nutrient Allocation Policies in Canterbury - Hinds Catchment

This report analyses the economic consequences of achieving a nitrate toxicity bottom line based on the National Objectives Framework in the Hinds zone in Canterbury under a number of different policy scenarios.

Market Economics: Southland Region - Regional Economic Profile & Significant Water Issues

This report provides an overview of the contribution and the value of water to the outputs of key economic sectors in the region

NZIER: Potential impacts of water related policies in Southland on the agricultural economy and nutrient discharges

This study evaluates the economic impacts and environmental outcomes of regional policy scenarios to reduce nutrient discharges at farm level in Southland

NIWA: Water Quality Modelling for the Southland Region

This scientific study aggregates the estimated farm level and point source nutrient discharges to downstream water quality concentrations of nitrate (N), phosphorus (P) and E. coli for 73 monitored sites in the Southland region.

Aqualinc: Environmental Assessment of Farm Mitigation Scenarios in Southland

This study assesses whether regional policy scenarios modelled at farm level (NZIER study) can result in water quality concentrations that can achieve national bottom lines for ecological health and human health in the Southland region.

Covec: Non Market Water Values in Southland

This study identifies the non-market values (eg, recreational, existence) associated with freshwater in Southland and provides a first step in assessing the marginal benefit of improving water quality on some of those values.

AgResearch: Survey of Rural Decision-makers in Canterbury, Southland and Waikato

This report presents the results of the research project that looks into understanding farmers' responses to policies setting limits on the use of freshwater resources. The purpose of the study is to use the resulting knowledge to improve current quantitative methods used for policy evaluation. Obtaining farmer behavioural data will strengthen the analysis of land-use change and adoption of farm practices, which will provide more realistic predictions for land users' responses to economic instruments.

Market Economics: Southland Industrial and Municipal Water Values - Invercargill Case Study

The case studies present an introduction to the potential mitigation costs to reduce contaminant lossess at industrial and municipal sites that are point sources of contaminants.

MfE Southland: Overview of studies assessing the potential impacts of scenarios for setting water quality objectives

This summary report provides an overview of the component economic impact studies relevant to the Southland Region.

Concept Consulting: Evaluation of potential electricity sector outcomes from revised minimum flow regimes on selected rivers

This report evaluates the potential economic impact on electricity generation arising from hypothetical altered minimum flow regimes on various rivers (used for electricity generation).

 

This report provides a tool to assist with regional decision-making and does not represent actual or proposed situations.

Science reports

These scientific reports represent the advice and evidence which informed discussions and analysis by expert panel members and the Science Review Panel to develop the attributes proposed in the Discussion Document and amended NPS-FM. The reports themselves do not reflect the final policy proposal.

Environmental Research Institute, The University of Waikato: A macroinvertebrate attribute to assess ecosystem health of New Zealand waterways for the National Objectives Framework – Issues and options This is one of two technical reports that assessed the options and implications of using the Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) as an attribute in the NPS-FM. This report specifically looked at identifying potential threshold values to define numeric attribute states for the MCI. 
Cawthron Institute: Relationships between macroinvertebrate community index and environmental drivers This is one of two technical reports that assessed the options and implications of using the Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) as an attribute in the NPS-FM. This report specifically looked at the cause-and-effect relationships between environmental drivers and MCI scores, and the potential response of the MCI to changes in catchment management.  
NIWA: Derivation of indicative ammoniacal nitrogen guidelines for the National Objectives Framework This memorandum documents the technical advice and evidence used to inform the development of the ammonia toxicity attribute.
NIWA: National Objectives Framework for Freshwater: Statistical considerations for assessing progress towards objectives with emphasis on secondary contact recreation values This report provides statistical advice about alternative approaches to defining thresholds and sample statistics for the E. coli attribute. 
Cawthron Institute: National Objectives Framework for Freshwater: An assessment of banding statistics for planktonic cyanobacteria This report provides statistical advice about alternative approaches to defining sample statistics for the planktonic cyanobacteria attribute. 
NIWA & The University of Waikato: National Objectives Framework - Comments on the need for inclusion of nutrient levels for lakes This paper provides advice to inform the development of the nutrient and phytoplankton attributes for the trophic state aspect of ecosystem health for lakes. 
NIWA: National Objectives Framework - Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen & pH

This technical report provides background information about temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH as potential attributes to protect the 'Ecosystem Health' value in rivers. It also provides information on regulatory approaches used internationally.

NIWA: Using regional council periphyton data (chlorophyll a) to predict compliance with the NOF bottom lines

This technical report summarises the outcomes of the ‘Periphyton Science Panel’ deliberations to define a periphyton attribute for ecosystem health in rivers. It also provides comparisons of the proposed attributes with monitoring and modelled data from several regions with appropriate monitoring data.

Environmental Research Institute, The University of Waikato Cyanobacteria band testing:  Examining applicability for the National (NZ) Objectives Framework

This technical report summarises the outcomes of the ‘Cyanobacteria Science Panel’ deliberations to define a secondary contact recreation cyanobacteria attributes for rivers and lakes. It also provides comparisons of the proposed attributes with monitoring data from several regions with known cyanobacteria blooms.

NIWA: Classification and Objective Bands for Monitored Lakes

This technical report summarises the outcomes of the 'Lakes Science Panel' deliberations to define a classification system and ecosystem health attributes for lakes. It also provides comparisons of monitoring data from 114 lakes with the proposed attributes.

NIWA: Issues in setting secondary contact recreation guidelines for New Zealand freshwaters (E.Coli)

This technical report provides evidence and advice used in setting the E. Coli attribute bands for secondary contact recreation in rivers and lakes.

NIWA: Updating nitrate toxicity effects on freshwater aquatic species

This existing report was used to inform the development of the nitrate toxicity attribute.

MfE: Microbiological Water Quality Guidelines for Marine and Freshwater Recreational Areas (SFRG)

This existing report provides rationale and guidance for monitoring and managing microbiological health risks from contact recreation in rivers and lakes.

Surveys of current practice

This section contains a collection of reports covering surveys of current practice and techniques that apply to water management for local government and resource users.

AgResearch, NIWA: Environmental Research Institute Assessment of Strategies to Mitigate the Impact or Loss of Contaminants from Agricultural Land to Fresh Waters

This report compiles a list of mitigation strategies for managing water quality that are currently available in New Zealand. It provides a commentary on their relative cost-effectiveness.

NIWA: Regional Council Freshwater Management Methodologies - accounting systems and limit setting (Volume 1 and 2)

This report explores accounting systems and limit-setting processes used by regional councils for managing freshwater resources.

 

Reviewed:
02/03/16